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1.
Med J Aust ; 215(9): 427-432, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination by vaccine type, age group eligibility, vaccination strategy, and population coverage. DESIGN: Epidemiologic modelling to assess the final size of a COVID-19 epidemic in Australia, with vaccination program (Pfizer, AstraZeneca, mixed), vaccination strategy (vulnerable first, transmitters first, untargeted), age group eligibility threshold (5 or 15 years), population coverage, and pre-vaccination effective reproduction number ( R eff v ¯ ) for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant as factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infections; cumulative hospitalisations, deaths, and years of life lost. RESULTS: Assuming R eff v ¯ = 5, the current mixed vaccination program (vaccinating people aged 60 or more with the AstraZeneca vaccine and people under 60 with the Pfizer vaccine) will not achieve herd protection unless population vaccination coverage reaches 85% by lowering the vaccination eligibility age to 5 years. At R eff v ¯ = 3, the mixed program could achieve herd protection at 60-70% population coverage and without vaccinating 5-15-year-old children. At R eff v ¯ = 7, herd protection is unlikely to be achieved with currently available vaccines, but they would still reduce the number of COVID-19-related deaths by 85%. CONCLUSION: Vaccinating vulnerable people first is the optimal policy when population vaccination coverage is low, but vaccinating more socially active people becomes more important as the R eff v ¯ declines and vaccination coverage increases. Assuming the most plausible R eff v ¯ of 5, vaccinating more than 85% of the population, including children, would be needed to achieve herd protection. Even without herd protection, vaccines are highly effective in reducing the number of deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Computer Simulation , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 40: 101988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China has now spread to every inhabitable continent, but now the attention has shifted from China to other epicentres. This study explored early assessment of the influence of spatial proximities and travel patterns from Italy on the further spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. METHODS: Using data on the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and air travel data between countries, we applied a stochastic meta-population model to estimate the global spread of COVID-19. Pearson's correlation, semi-variogram, and Moran's Index were used to examine the association and spatial autocorrelation between the number of COVID-19 cases and travel influx (and arrival time) from the source country. RESULTS: We found significant negative association between disease arrival time and number of cases imported from Italy (r = -0.43, p = 0.004) and significant positive association between the number of COVID-19 cases and daily travel influx from Italy (r = 0.39, p = 0.011). Using bivariate Moran's Index analysis, we found evidence of spatial interaction between COVID-19 cases and travel influx (Moran's I = 0.340). Asia-Pacific region is at higher/extreme risk of disease importation from the Chinese epicentre, whereas the rest of Europe, South-America and Africa are more at risk from the Italian epicentre. CONCLUSION: We showed that as the epicentre changes, the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spread change to reflect spatial proximities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Air Travel/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel/statistics & numerical data
3.
Front Public Health ; 8: 241, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613125

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is not only a global pandemic and public health crisis; it has also severely affected the global economy and financial markets. Significant reductions in income, a rise in unemployment, and disruptions in the transportation, service, and manufacturing industries are among the consequences of the disease mitigation measures that have been implemented in many countries. It has become clear that most governments in the world underestimated the risks of rapid COVID-19 spread and were mostly reactive in their crisis response. As disease outbreaks are not likely to disappear in the near future, proactive international actions are required to not only save lives but also protect economic prosperity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Civil Defense , Disease Outbreaks/economics , Internationality , Public Health/economics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment
4.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 64-69, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608740

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11th March, 2020. Response to this ongoing pandemic requires extensive collaboration across the scientific community in an attempt to contain its impact and limit further transmission. Mathematical modelling has been at the forefront of these response efforts by: (1) providing initial estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction rate, R0 (of approximately 2-3); (2) updating these estimates following the implementation of various interventions (with significantly reduced, often sub-critical, transmission rates); (3) assessing the potential for global spread before significant case numbers had been reported internationally; and (4) quantifying the expected disease severity and burden of COVID-19, indicating that the likely true infection rate is often orders of magnitude greater than estimates based on confirmed case counts alone. In this review, we highlight the critical role played by mathematical modelling to understand COVID-19 thus far, the challenges posed by data availability and uncertainty, and the continuing utility of modelling-based approaches to guide decision making and inform the public health response. †Unless otherwise stated, all bracketed error margins correspond to the 95% credible interval (CrI) for reported estimates.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Making , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Data Collection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 57-60, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603916

ABSTRACT

Models have played an important role in policy development to address the COVID-19 outbreak from its emergence in China to the current global pandemic. Early projections of international spread influenced travel restrictions and border closures. Model projections based on the virus's infectiousness demonstrated its pandemic potential, which guided the global response to and prepared countries for increases in hospitalisations and deaths. Tracking the impact of distancing and movement policies and behaviour changes has been critical in evaluating these decisions. Models have provided insights into the epidemiological differences between higher and lower income countries, as well as vulnerable population groups within countries to help design fit-for-purpose policies. Economic evaluation and policies have combined epidemic models and traditional economic models to address the economic consequences of COVID-19, which have informed policy calls for easing restrictions. Social contact and mobility models have allowed evaluation of the pathways to safely relax mobility restrictions and distancing measures. Finally, models can consider future end-game scenarios, including how suppression can be achieved and the impact of different vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Policy , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Policy Making , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Developing Countries , Epidemiologic Methods , Humans , Models, Economic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(9)2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133599

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a novel coronavirus disease in China that was later named COVID-19. On 11 March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. The first instance of the virus in Nigeria was documented on 27 February 2020. This study provides a preliminary epidemiological analysis of the first 45 days of COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. We estimated the early transmissibility via time-varying reproduction number based on the Bayesian method that incorporates uncertainty in the distribution of serial interval (time interval between symptoms onset in an infected individual and the infector), and adjusted for disease importation. By 11 April 2020, 318 confirmed cases and 10 deaths from COVID-19 have occurred in Nigeria. At day 45, the exponential growth rate was 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.10) with a doubling time of 9.84 days (95% CI: 7.28-15.18). Separately for imported cases (travel-related) and local cases, the doubling time was 12.88 days and 2.86 days, respectively. Furthermore, we estimated the reproduction number for each day of the outbreak using a three-weekly window while adjusting for imported cases. The estimated reproduction number was 4.98 (95% CrI: 2.65-8.41) at day 22 (19 March 2020), peaking at 5.61 (95% credible interval (CrI): 3.83-7.88) at day 25 (22 March 2020). The median reproduction number over the study period was 2.71 and the latest value on 11 April 2020, was 1.42 (95% CrI: 1.26-1.58). These 45-day estimates suggested that cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria have been remarkably lower than expected and the preparedness to detect needs to be shifted to stop local transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Travel-Related Illness , Travel , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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