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Phytother Res ; 35(3): 1298-1312, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172008


The whole world is entangled by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), people are dying in thousands each day, and without an actual medication, it seems not possible for the bringing this global health crisis to a stop. Natural products have been in constant use since ancient times and are proven by time to be effective. Crude extract or pure compounds isolated from medicinal plants and/or herbs such as Artemisia annua, Agastache rugosa, Astragalus membranaceus, Cassia alata, Ecklonia cava, Gymnema sylvestre, Glycyrrhizae uralensis, Houttuynia cordata, Lindera aggregata, Lycoris radiata, Mollugo cerviana, Polygonum multiflorum, Pyrrosia lingua, Saposhnikoviae divaricate, Tinospora cordifolia etc. have shown promising inhibitory effect against coronavirus. Several molecules, including acacetin, amentoflavone, allicin, blancoxanthone, curcumin, daidzein, diosmin, epigallocatechin-gallate, emodin, hesperidin, herbacetin, hirsutenone, iguesterin, jubanine G, kaempferol, lycorine, pectolinarin, phloroeckol, silvestrol, tanshinone I, taxifolin, rhoifolin, xanthoangelol E, zingerol etc. isolated from plants could also be potential drug candidates against COVID-19. Moreover, these could also show promising inhibitory effects against influenza-parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have reported 93 antiviral drug candidates which could be a potential area of research in drug discovery.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
Tribhuvan University Journal ; : 15-32, 2020.
Article in English | Nepal Journals Online | ID: covidwho-926085


 The study assesses the likely consequences of COVID-19 in the forest sector of Nepal, focusing on timber production and rural livelihoods. The study conducted telephone interviews along with a review of the secondary source of information and consultations. The timber production in 2020 is likely to decrease by 80% compared to previous years, resulting in a monetary loss of NRs 647.0 million. Furthermore, local community will lose 147,447 days of employment, amounting NRs 117.9 million. This will make livelihoods of the people more vulnerable. Returning of youths from abroad can further escalate biodiversity threats. Timber import is likely to increase in the country, thus impacting on local level employment opportunities. Both long-term and short-term strategies are necessary to revive the timber production and rural livelihoods, where priority should be on increasing investment in the forestry sector. However, public-sector investment is declining. Hence there is a need to expand conservation finance portfolios to incentivise rural people on timber production and achieve synergies between conservation and livelihood outcomes.