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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 13(12):4890-4900, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2155831


The recent emergence of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2 has added alarm to the eternal flame of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Omicron was first identified in Botswana in November 2021. The omicron is thought to be at least three times more infectious than the previous variants. Omicron can cause diseases varying from asymptomatic, mild, and severe infection and people have died from omicron in a second pandemic wave that occurred in March-May 2021. This variant has been detected in more than 77 countries worldwide as per WHO until January 2022. The spike protein is the target of most COVID-19 vaccines and is what the virus uses to unlock access to our body's immune cells, many of which (69-70del (deletion), T95I, G142D/143-145del, K417N, N679K, T478K, N501Y, N655Y, and P681H) overlap with Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta variants. Some spike protein mutations include A67V, DELTA69-70, T95I, G142D/DELTA143-145, DELTA211/L212I, ins214EPE G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, etc. Remarkable mutations in the furin cleavage site may increase transmissibility and replication as in Alpha (P681H) and Gamma (H655Y, N679K) and affect the binding affinity of ACE-2 receptor. Though, after many ongoing mutations and adaptation, omicron can efficiently breach the host immunity, leading to prolonged, severe infection, causing more mortality and rapid spread. There is still substantial uncertainty based on ongoing genomic changes, the effectiveness of current and upcoming vaccines, and treatment against omicron. Thus omicron has forced on the world a chance to explore the intricacies of the complex immunological mechanism. Copyright © 2022 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research ; 12(6), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395258


Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection becomes the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows drastic changes in health care system. Aims and objectives: (1) To assess different biomarkers in COVID-19 cases, (2) To correlate biomarkers with cycle threshold (CT) value of Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and it's role for prognosis of severe cases. Material and Methods: Consecutive patients with positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR with CT value less than 36 were included. A CT values were found for envelope (E-gene) as a screening gene and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) as a confirmatory gene were amplified during RT-PCR. The severity of illness was assessed using different biochemical parameters for C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea, and creatinine.