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1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S1): e2022102, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879757

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS) is an often misdiagnosed clinical condition characterized by dyspnea and hypoxia in sitting or semi-sitting position, reversible in supine position. Although POS is typically associated with intracardiac shunts, it seems frequent also in SARS-CoV-2 related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). In fact, the prevalent involvement of the lung bases due to interstitial pneumonia can determine refractory positional hypoxemia, with marked desaturation in the sitting position and regression or improvement in the supine position, configuring the clinical picture of the POS. We present a clinical case of POS associated with acute respiratory distress from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in which refractory hypoxia would have required support by invasive mechanical ventilation if the syndrome had not been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809966

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be complicated by interstitial pneumonia, possibly leading to severe acute respiratory failure and death. Because of variable evolution ranging from asymptomatic cases to the need for invasive ventilation, COVID-19 outcomes cannot be precisely predicted on admission. The aim of this study was to provide a simple tool able to predict the outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia on admission to a low-intensity ward in order to better plan management strategies for these patients. Methods The clinical records of 123 eligible patients were reviewed. The following variables were analyzed on admission: chest computed tomography severity score (CTSS), PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin. The main outcome was the intensity of respiratory support (RS). To simplify the statistical analysis, patients were split into two main groups: those requiring no or low/moderate oxygen support (group 1); and those needing subintensive/intensive RS up to mechanical ventilation (group 2). Results The RS intensity was significantly associated with higher CTSS and NLR scores; lower PaO2/FiO2 ratios; and higher serum levels of LDH, CRP, D-dimer, and AST. After multivariate logistic regression and ROC curve analysis, CTSS and LDH were shown to be the best predictors of respiratory function worsening. Conclusions Two easy-to-obtain parameters (CTSS and LDH) were able to reliably predict a worse evolution of COVID-19 pneumonia with values of >7 and >328 U/L, respectively.

3.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792833

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to the hospitalization of an unselected population with the possibility to evaluate the epidemiology of viral hepatitis. Thus, a retrospective multicenter study was conducted in an area of Southern Italy with the aim of assessing the prevalence of HCV and HBV markers and the ability of current screening program to capture cases. We evaluated 2126 hospitalized patients in seven COVID Centers of Naples and Caserta area in which 70% of the Campania population lives. HBsAg and HCV-Ab prevalence was 1.6% and 5.1%, respectively, with no differences between gender. Decade distribution for birth year shows a bimodal trend of HCV prevalence, with a peak (11.6%) in the decade 1930-1939 and a second peak (5.6%) for those born in 1960-1969. An analysis of the screening period imposed by the Italian government for those born between 1969 and 1989 shows that only 17% of cases of HCV infection could be captured. A small alignment of the screening period, i.e., those born from 1960 to 1984, would capture 40% of cases. The data confirm the high endemicity of our geographical area for hepatitis virus infections and underline the need for a tailored screening program according to the regional epidemiology.

4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5771, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778635

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still a health problem worldwide despite the availability of vaccines. Therefore, there is a need for effective and safe antiviral. SARS-CoV-2 and HCV necessitate RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for replication; therefore, it has been hypothesized that RdRp inhibitors used to treat HCV may be effective treating SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) combination in early SARS-CoV-2 infection. A multicenter case-control study was conducted, enrolling 120 patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, of whom 30, HCV coinfected or not, received SOF/VEL tablets (400/100 mg) once daily for 9 days within a median of 6 days from the beginning of infection and 90 controls were treated with standard care. The primary endpoint was the effect on viral clearance, and the secondary endpoint was the improvement of clinical outcomes. Nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR were performed every 5-7 days. Between 5-14 days after starting SOF/VEL treatment, SAS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in 83% of patients, while spontaneous clearance in the control was 13% (p < 0.001). An earlier SARS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in the SOF/VEL group than in the control group (median 14 vs 22 days, respectively, p < 0.001) also when the first positivity was considered. None of the patients in the SOF/VEL group showed disease progression, while in the control group, 24% required more intensive treatment (high flow oxygen or noninvasive/invasive ventilation), and one patient died (p < 0.01). No significant side effects were observed in the SOF/VEL group. Early SOF/VEL treatment in mild/moderate COVID-19 seems to be safe and effective for faster elimination of SARS-CoV-2 and to prevent disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/adverse effects , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir , Treatment Outcome
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an antiviral used to treat COVID-19 which improves some clinical outcomes. Dexamethasone has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality. It has been hypothesized that combination of these two drugs can improve mortality. We evaluated the effect of combination on mortality of COVID-19 patients requiring O2 therapy. METHODS: A prospective quasi-experimental study, including two independent, sequential controlled cohorts, one received remdesivir-dexamethasone and the other dexamethasone alone, was designed. All COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental O2 therapy were enrolled consecutively. The sample size to power mortality was a priori calculated. The primary endpoints were 30-day mortality and viral clearance differences. Secondary endpoints were differences in hospitalization times, improvement in respiratory failure (PO2/FiO2) and inflammatory indices (fibrinogen, CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, D-Dimer). Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test were used to evaluate significant differences in mortality between groups. RESULTS: 151 COVID-19 patients were enrolled (remdesivir/dexamethasone group, 76 and dexamethasone alone,75). No differences in demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were observed between the two groups at baseline. Faster viral clearance occurred in the remdesivir/dexamethasone group compared to dexamethasone alone (median 6 vs 16 days; p<0.001). 30-days mortality in the remdesivir/dexamethasone group was 1.3%, while in dexamethasone alone was 16% (p<0.005). In the remdesivir/dexamethasone group compared to dexamethasone alone there was a reduction in hospitalization days (p<0.0001) and a faster improvement in both respiratory function and inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir/dexamethasone treatment is associated with significant reduction in mortality, length of hospitalization, and faster SARS-CoV-2 clearance, compared to dexamethasone alone.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, the use of several drugs has represented the worldwide clinical practice. However, though the current increase of knowledge about the disease, there is still no effective treatment for the usage of drugs. Thus, we retrospectively assessed use and effects of therapeutic regimens in hospitalized patients on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: COVOCA is a retrospective observational cohort study on 18 COVID centres throughout Campania Region Hospitals. We included adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, discharged/dead between March/June 2020. RESULTS: 618 patients were included, with an overall in-hospital cumulative mortality incidence of 23.1%. Most prescribed early treatments were antivirals (72%), antibiotics (65%) and hydroxychloroquine/anticoagulants (≈50%). Tocilizumab, indeed, was largely prescribed late during hospitalization. Multivariable models, with a cut-off at day 2 for early COVID-19 therapy administration, did not disclose any significant association of a single drug administration on the clinical outcome. DISCUSSION: COVOCA represents the first multicenter database in Campania region. None drug class used during the pandemic significantly modified the outcome, regardless of therapy beginning, both overall and net of those already in non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/ orotracheal intubation (OTI) at hospitalization. Our cumulative incidence of mortality seems lower than other described during the same period, particularly in Northern Italy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243700, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy has been the first Western country to be heavily affected by the spread of SARS-COV-2 infection and among the pioneers of the clinical management of pandemic. To improve the outcome, identification of patients at the highest risk seems mandatory. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to identify comorbidities and clinical conditions upon admission associated with in-hospital mortality in several COVID Centers in Campania Region (Italy). METHODS: COVOCA is a multicentre retrospective observational cohort study, which involved 18 COVID Centers throughout Campania Region, Italy. Data were collected from patients who completed their hospitalization between March-June 2020. The endpoint was in-hospital mortality, assessed either from data at discharge or death certificate, whilst all exposure variables were collected at hospital admission. RESULTS: Among 618 COVID-19 hospitalized patients included in the study, 143 in-hospital mortality events were recorded, with a cumulative incidence of about 23%. At multivariable logistic analysis, male sex (OR 2.63, 95%CI 1.42-4.90; p = 0.001), Chronic Liver Disease (OR 5.88, 95%CI 2.39-14.46; p<0.001) and malignancies (OR 2.62, 95%CI 1.21-5.68; p = 0.015) disclosed an independent association with a poor prognosis, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Respiratory Severity Scale allowed to identify at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analysis further enhanced these findings. CONCLUSION: Mortality of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 appears strongly affected by both clinical conditions on admission and comorbidities. Originally, we observed a very poor outcome in subjects with a chronic liver disease, alongside with an increase of hepatic damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 9036847, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894922

ABSTRACT

Recently, telemedicine has become remarkably important, due to increased deployment and development of digital technologies. National and international guidelines should consider its inclusion in their updates. During the COVID-19 pandemic, mandatory social distancing and the lack of effective treatments has made telemedicine the safest interactive system between patients, both infected and uninfected, and clinicians. A few potential evidence-based scenarios for the application of telemedicine have been hypothesized. In particular, its use in diabetes and complication monitoring has been remarkably increasing, due to the high risk of poor prognosis. New evidence and technological improvements in telemedicine application in diabetic retinopathy (DR) have demonstrated efficacy and usefulness in screening. Moreover, despite an initial increase for devices and training costs, teleophthalmology demonstrated a good cost-to-efficacy ratio; however, no national screening program has yet focused on DR prevention and diagnosis. Lack of data during the COVID-19 pandemic strongly limits the possibility of tracing the real management of the disease, which is only conceivable from past evidence in normal conditions. The pandemic further stressed the importance of remote monitoring. However, the deployment of device and digital application used to increase screening of individuals and monitor progression of retinal disease needs to be easily accessible to general practitioners.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/trends , Ophthalmology/economics , Ophthalmology/methods , Ophthalmology/organization & administration , Ophthalmology/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/trends
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