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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820264

ABSTRACT

Inhaled ultrafine particle (UFP) content in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was observed as an airway inflammatory marker and an indicator of exposure to particulate matter (PM). The exceptional decline in air pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown was an opportunity to evaluate the effect of environmental changes on UFP airway content. We collected EBC samples from 30 healthy subjects during the first lockdown due to COVID-19 in Israel (March-April 2020) and compared them to EBC samples retrieved during April-June 2016 from 25 other healthy subjects (controls) living in the same northern Israeli district. All participants underwent EBC collection and blood sampling. Ambient air pollutant levels were collected from the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection's online database. Data were acquired from the monitoring station closest to each subject's home address, and means were calculated for a duration of 1 month preceding EBC collection. UFP contents were measured in the EBC and blood samples by means of the NanoSight LM20 system. There was a dramatic reduction in NO, NO2, SO2, and O3 levels during lockdown compared to a similar period in 2016 (by 61%, 26%, 50%, and 45%, respectively). The specific NO2 levels were 8.3 ppb for the lockdown group and 11.2 ppb for the controls (p = 0.01). The lockdown group had higher UFP concentrations in EBC and lower UFP concentrations in serum compared to controls (0.58 × 108/mL and 4.3 × 108/mL vs. 0.43 × 108/mL and 6.7 × 108/mL, p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively). In this observational study, reduced levels of air pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown were reflected in increased levels of UFP airway contents. The suggested mechanism is that low airway inflammation levels during lockdown resulted in a decreased UFP translocation to serum. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Nitrogen Dioxide , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
J Control Release ; 346: 421-433, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763813

ABSTRACT

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), associated with Covid-19 infections, is characterized by diffuse lung damage, inflammation and alveolar collapse that impairs gas exchange, leading to hypoxemia and patient' mortality rates above 40%. Here, we describe the development and assessment of 100-nm liposomes that are tailored for pulmonary delivery for treating ARDS, as a model for lung diseases. The liposomal lipid composition (primarily DPPC) was optimized to mimic the lung surfactant composition, and the drug loading process of both methylprednisolone (MPS), a steroid, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent, reached an encapsulation efficiency of 98% and 92%, respectively. In vitro, treating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages with the liposomes decreased TNFα and nitric oxide (NO) secretion, while NAC increased the penetration of nanoparticles through the mucus. In vivo, we used LPS-induced lung inflammation model to assess the accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of the liposomes in C57BL/6 mice, either by intravenous (IV), endotracheal (ET) or IV plus ET nanoparticles administrations. Using both administration methods, liposomes exhibited an increased accumulation profile in the inflamed lungs over 48 h. Interestingly, while IV-administrated liposomes distributed widely throughout the lung, ET liposomes were present in lungs parenchyma but were not detected at some distal regions of the lungs, possibly due to imperfect airflow regimes. Twenty hours after the different treatments, lungs were assessed for markers of inflammation. We found that the nanoparticle treatment had a superior therapeutic effect compared to free drugs in treating ARDS, reducing inflammation and TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1ß cytokine secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and that the combined treatment, delivering nanoparticles IV and ET simultaneously, had the best outcome of all treatments. Interestingly, also the DPPC lipid component alone played a therapeutic role in reducing inflammatory markers in the lungs. Collectively, we show that therapeutic nanoparticles accumulate in inflamed lungs holding potential for treating lung disorders. SIGNIFICANCE: In this study we compare intravenous versus intratracheal delivery of nanoparticles for treating lung disorders, specifically, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). By co-loading two medications into lipid nanoparticles, we were able to reduce both inflammation and mucus secretion in the inflamed lungs. Both modes of delivery resulted in high nanoparticle accumulation in the lungs, intravenously administered nanoparticles reached lung endothelial while endotracheal delivery reached lung epithelial. Combining both delivery approaches simultaneously provided the best ARDS treatment outcome.

3.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736337

ABSTRACT

The use of ICS is safe and people living with #asthma should continue to take their prescribed medication as usual during the #COVID19 pandemic https://bit.ly/3rOYIL2.

4.
ERJ open research ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1688524

ABSTRACT

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) alone or in combination with bronchodilators are widely used in asthma [1]. ICS have potential immunosuppressive effects which may promote viral replication, delayed viral clearance and increased risks of secondary infections [2, 3]. Furthermore, ICS use in asthma is associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections [2, 3]. Therefore, in the face of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, concerns have been raised whether the use of ICS in asthmatic patients increase the risk of SARS CoV-2 infection and affect COVID-19 severity and mortality.

5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(162)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573627

ABSTRACT

As the world faces the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, concerns have been raised that asthma patients could be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity. However, it appears that asthma is not an independent risk factor for both. Furthermore, asthma is not over-represented in hospitalised patients with severe pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and there was no increased risk of asthma exacerbations triggered by SARS-CoV-2. There is accumulating evidence that asthma phenotypes and comorbidities are important factors in evaluating the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity, as findings suggest that Th2-high inflammation may reduce the risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection and disease severity in contrast to increased risk in patients with Th2-low asthma. The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is safe in asthma patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, it has been proposed that ICS may confer some degree of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe disease by reducing the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 and transmembrane protease serine in the lung. In contrast, chronic or recurrent use of systemic corticosteroids before SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major risk factor of poor outcomes and worst survival in asthma patients. Conversely, biological therapy for severe allergic and eosinophilic asthma does not increase the risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 or having worse COVID-19 severity. In the present review we will summarise the current literature regarding asthma and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(2): 361-367.e13, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Managing severe asthma during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is challenging, particularly due to safety concerns regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids and biologics. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between biologics or systemic corticosteroids use and PCR positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among asthmatic patients. METHODS: We used the computerized database of Clalit Health Services, the largest health care provider in Israel, to identify all asthmatic adult patients who underwent PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2, between March 1, 2020, and December 7, 2020. A cohort approach was used to assess the association between biologics use and steroids treatment and COVID-19 severity and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 8,242 of 80,602 tested asthmatic patients had positive PCR testing result for SARS-CoV-2. Both biologics and systemic corticosteroids were not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariate analyses revealed that biologics were not associated with a significantly increased risk of moderate to severe COVID-19, nor with the composite end point of moderate to severe COVID-19 or all-cause mortality within 90 days. Chronic systemic corticosteroid use was associated with significantly increased risk of all tested outcome. Recent (within the previous 120 days) systemic corticosteroid use, but not former use, was significantly associated with increased risk of both moderate to severe COVID-19 and the composite of moderate to severe COVID-19 or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Biologics approved for asthma and systemic corticosteroids are not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, systemic corticosteroids are an independent risk factor for worst COVID-19 severity and all-cause mortality. Our findings underscore the risk of recent or current exposure to systemic corticosteroids in asthmatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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