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1.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(6): 631-644, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has paved the way for new in vitro models of human cardiomyopathy. Herein, we will review existing models of disease as well as strengths and limitations of the system. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies have now demonstrated that iPSCs generated from patients with both acquired or heritable genetic diseases retain properties of the disease in vitro and can be used as a model to study novel therapeutics. iPSCs can be differentiated in vitro into the cardiomyocyte lineage into cells resembling adult ventricular myocytes that retain properties of cardiovascular disease from their respective donor. iPSC pluripotency allows for them to be frozen, stored, and continually used to generate iPSC-derived myocytes for future experiments without need for invasive procedures or repeat myocyte isolations to obtain animal or human cardiac tissues. While not without their limitations, iPSC models offer new ways for studying patient-specific cardiomyopathies. iPSCs offer a high-throughput avenue for drug development, modeling of disease pathophysiology in vitro, and enabling experimental repair strategies without need for invasive procedures to obtain cardiac tissues.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Animals , Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac
2.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 20(4): 241-251, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccines have demonstrated protection against the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, but concerns regarding the rare side effect of acute myocarditis have stymied immunization efforts. This review aims to describe the incidence and theorized mechanisms of COVID vaccine-associated myocarditis and review relevant principles for management of vaccine-associated myocarditis. AREAS COVERED: Epidemiologic studies of myocarditis after COVID vaccination are reviewed, which show an incidence of approximately 20-30 per million patients. The vast majority of these cases are seen with mRNA vaccines especially in male patients under 30 years of age. Mechanisms are largely theoretical, but molecular mimicry and dysregulated innate immune reactions have been proposed. While studies suggest that this subtype of myocarditis is mild and self-limited, long-term evidence is lacking. Principles of myocarditis treatment and surveillance are outlined as they apply to COVID vaccine-associated myocarditis. EXPERT OPINION: COVID vaccine-associated myocarditis is rare but well described in certain at-risk groups. Better understanding of its pathogenesis is key to mitigating this complication and advancing vaccination efforts. Risk-benefit analyses demonstrate that individual- and population-level benefits of vaccination exceed the risks of this rare and mild form of myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
J Cardiol Cases ; 25(6): 348-350, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611809

ABSTRACT

A 40-year-old man with history of prior coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection developed pleuritic chest pain 3 days after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Echocardiography results were significant for mild dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed myocardial edema as well as delayed enhancement in the inferior wall of the basal left ventricular myocardium, suggestive of acute myocarditis. This case describes the work-up, diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management of acute myocarditis post BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. .

7.
Clin Transplant ; 36(1): e14443, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328997

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressed heart transplant (HT) recipients are thought to be at higher risk of infection and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, evidence guiding management of HT patients are limited. Retrospective search of electronic health records from February 2020 to February 2021, identified 28 HT recipients out of 400 followed by UC San Diego who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patient demographics, COVID-19 directed therapies, hospital course and outcomes were compared to control HT recipients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the same period (n = 80). Among 28 HT recipients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 15 were admitted to the hospital and 13 were monitored closely as outpatients. Among inpatients, five developed severe illness and two died (7% mortality). Nine patients were treated with remdesivir, and four received dexamethasone and remdesivir. Two outpatients received neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy and one outpatient received dexamethasone for persistent dyspnea. Immunosuppressed HT recipients, especially Hispanic patients and patients with higher body mass index, were at greater risk of infection and mortality from COVID-19 than the general population. Use of remdesivir and dexamethasone may have improved outcomes in our HT recipients compared to HT recipients at other centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
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