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Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(6): 631-644, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877492


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has paved the way for new in vitro models of human cardiomyopathy. Herein, we will review existing models of disease as well as strengths and limitations of the system. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies have now demonstrated that iPSCs generated from patients with both acquired or heritable genetic diseases retain properties of the disease in vitro and can be used as a model to study novel therapeutics. iPSCs can be differentiated in vitro into the cardiomyocyte lineage into cells resembling adult ventricular myocytes that retain properties of cardiovascular disease from their respective donor. iPSC pluripotency allows for them to be frozen, stored, and continually used to generate iPSC-derived myocytes for future experiments without need for invasive procedures or repeat myocyte isolations to obtain animal or human cardiac tissues. While not without their limitations, iPSC models offer new ways for studying patient-specific cardiomyopathies. iPSCs offer a high-throughput avenue for drug development, modeling of disease pathophysiology in vitro, and enabling experimental repair strategies without need for invasive procedures to obtain cardiac tissues.

Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Animals , Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac
Clin Transplant ; 36(1): e14443, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328997


Immunosuppressed heart transplant (HT) recipients are thought to be at higher risk of infection and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, evidence guiding management of HT patients are limited. Retrospective search of electronic health records from February 2020 to February 2021, identified 28 HT recipients out of 400 followed by UC San Diego who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patient demographics, COVID-19 directed therapies, hospital course and outcomes were compared to control HT recipients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the same period (n = 80). Among 28 HT recipients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 15 were admitted to the hospital and 13 were monitored closely as outpatients. Among inpatients, five developed severe illness and two died (7% mortality). Nine patients were treated with remdesivir, and four received dexamethasone and remdesivir. Two outpatients received neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy and one outpatient received dexamethasone for persistent dyspnea. Immunosuppressed HT recipients, especially Hispanic patients and patients with higher body mass index, were at greater risk of infection and mortality from COVID-19 than the general population. Use of remdesivir and dexamethasone may have improved outcomes in our HT recipients compared to HT recipients at other centers.

COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients