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Gut ; 71(5): 879-888, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685682


OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether famotidine improved inflammation and symptomatic recovery in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully remote, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04724720) enrolling symptomatic unvaccinated adult outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 2021 and April 2021 from two US centres. Patients self-administered 80 mg famotidine (n=28) or placebo (n=27) orally three times a day for 14 consecutive days. Endpoints were time to (primary) or rate of (secondary) symptom resolution, and resolution of inflammation (exploratory). RESULTS: Of 55 patients in the intention-to-treat group (median age 35 years (IQR: 20); 35 women (64%); 18 African American (33%); 14 Hispanic (26%)), 52 (95%) completed the trial, submitting 1358 electronic symptom surveys. Time to symptom resolution was not statistically improved (p=0.4). Rate of symptom resolution was improved for patients taking famotidine (p<0.0001). Estimated 50% reduction of overall baseline symptom scores were achieved at 8.2 days (95% CI: 7 to 9.8 days) for famotidine and 11.4 days (95% CI: 10.3 to 12.6 days) for placebo treated patients. Differences were independent of patient sex, race or ethnicity. Five self-limiting adverse events occurred (famotidine, n=2 (40%); placebo, n=3 (60%)). On day 7, fewer patients on famotidine had detectable interferon alpha plasma levels (p=0.04). Plasma immunoglobulin type G levels to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid core protein were similar between both arms. CONCLUSIONS: Famotidine was safe and well tolerated in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Famotidine led to earlier resolution of symptoms and inflammation without reducing anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Additional randomised trials are required.

COVID-19 , Famotidine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Clin Kidney J ; 14(9): 2000-2011, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393224


The initial report of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was from the UK in April 2020; since then, cases have been reported worldwide. Renal involvement has been seen commonly, ranging from 10% to 46%. Kidney involvement following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children with MIS-C is more common than initially thought and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. There are several reports of a direct viral tropism of coronavirus disease 2019 and MIS-C-associated renal damage. This study's objective was to systematically review the current understanding of kidney involvement in children suffering from MIS-C. Based on our systemic literature search, 19 studies have either partially or fully discussed kidney involvement in MIS-C patients. Furthermore, we discuss the multifactorial pathogenesis contributing to acute kidney injury (AKI) development in MIS-C. The current review gives a pediatric nephrologist's perspective of the renal involvement in MIS-C, the incidence of AKI, the pathophysiology of AKI in MIS-C and the proposed therapeutic regimens available, including the need for kidney replacement therapy for a child with AKI associated with MIS-C. As the disease is rapidly evolving, more detailed clinical prospective studies are required to understand MIS-C and its role in AKI better.