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3.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The durability of the immune response following the 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccination is unknown. The complexity of the situation is enhanced by the threat that highly transmissible variants may further accelerate the decline in the protection afforded by mRNA vaccines. METHODS: One hundred and three 3-dose-vaccinated heart transplant recipients were longitudinally assessed for the kinetics of variant-specific neutralization (Cohort 1, n = 60) and SARS-CoV-2-specific-T-cell response (Cohort 2, n = 54) over 6 months. Neutralization and T-cell responses were compared between paired samples at 2 time points, using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test for continuous variables and McNemar's test for dichotomous variables. The Bonferroni method of p values adjustment for multiple comparison was applied. RESULTS: The third dose induced high neutralization of the wild-type virus and delta variant (geometric mean titer [GMT], 137.2 [95% CI, 84.8-221.9] and 80.6, [95% CI, 49.3-132.0], respectively), and to a lesser degree of the omicron variant (GMT, 10.3 [95% CI, 5.9-17.9]). At 6 months, serum neutralizing activity declined but was still high for the wild-type virus and for the delta variant (GMTs 38.1 [95% CI, 21.2-69.4], p = 0.011; and 28.9 [95% CI, 16.6-52.3], p = 0.022, respectively), but not for the omicron variant (GMT 5.9 [95% CI, 3.4-9.8], p = 0.463). The percentages of neutralizing sera against the wild-type virus, delta and omicron variants increased from 70%, 65%, and 38%, before the third dose, to 93% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 48% (p = 0.021) at 3 weeks after, respectively; and remained high through the 6 months for the wild-type (80%, p = 0.06) and delta (77%, p = 0.102). The third dose induced the development of a sustained SARS-CoV-2-specific-T-cell population, which persisted through 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The third BNT162b2 dose elicited a durable SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response and induced effective and durable neutralization of the wild-type virus and the delta variant, and to a lesser degree of the omicron variant.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 838825, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847222

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify COVID-19 work-related stressors and experiences associated with sleep difficulties in HCW, and to assess the role of depression and traumatic stress in this association. Methods: A cross-sectional study of HCW using self-report questionnaires, during the first peak of the pandemic in Israel (April 2020), conducted in a large tertiary medical center in Israel. Study population included 189 physicians and nurses working in designated COVID-19 wards and a comparison group of 643 HCW. Mean age of the total sample was 41.7 ± 11.1, 67% were female, 42.1% physicians, with overall mean number of years of professional experience 14.2 ± 20. The exposure was working in COVID-19 wards and related specific stressors and negative experiences. Primary outcome measurement was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Secondary outcomes included the Primary Care-Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD-5); the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression; the anxiety module of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS); Pandemic-Related Stress Factors (PRSF) and witnessing patient suffering and death. Results: Compared with non-COVID-19 HCW, COVID-19 HCW were more likely to be male (41.3% vs. 30.7%) and younger (36.91 ± 8.81 vs. 43.14 ± 11.35 years). COVID-19 HCW reported higher prevalence of sleep difficulties: 63% vs. 50.7% in the non-COVID group (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.29, p = 0.006), mostly difficulty maintaining sleep: 26.5% vs. 18.5% (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.11-2.44, p = 0.012). Negative COVID-19 work-related experiences, specifically witnessing patient physical suffering and death, partially explained the association. Although past psychological problems and current depression and PTSD were associated with difficulty maintaining sleep, the main association remained robust also after controlling for those conditions in the full model. Conclusion and Relevance: COVID-19 frontline HCW were more likely to report sleep difficulties, mainly difficulty maintaining sleep, as compared with non-COVID-19 HCW working at the same hospital. Negative patient-care related experiences likely mediated the increased probability for those difficulties. Future research is needed to elucidate the long-term trajectories of sleep difficulties among HCW during large scale outbreaks, and to identify risk factors for their persistence.

5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(8): e312-e317, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, school closure as a mitigating measure was at the center of a public and professional debate. While the negative effects of school closure cannot be ignored, accumulating data suggested that it is necessary for reducing community transmission. Our study presents an optional strategy for safe school opening during a pandemic, implemented in selected Israeli high schools by a special task force constructed by the Sheba Medical Center (SMC). METHODS: The study took place between November 2020 and April 2021. Three schools from different areas of Israel were enrolled. The participants were asked to undergo bi-weekly SARS-CoV-2 rapid diagnostic antigen tests (Ag-RDT). Those who tested positive were requested to self-isolate, whereas their school contacts were tested daily by Ag-RDT. Participants with a previously documented SARS-CoV-2 infection or who were found to be SARS-CoV-2 seropositive upon enrollment were exempted from screening. RESULTS: Of a total of 361 participants who enrolled in the study, 12.3% were found to be seropositive. Fourteen SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected (3.5%), 12 of them in one single school located in an endemic area for SARS-CoV-2. The 14 cases resulted in 84 days of COVID-19-related absence from school, comparing with 1775 potential days of COVID-19-related absence under a strategy implementing self-isolation instead of testing. CONCLUSIONS: Safe continuation of academic routine during the pandemic is possible when using rapid Ag-RDT as a screening tool, while allowing swab collection by trained students and teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
6.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819498

ABSTRACT

We investigated changes in receptor-binding domain IgG and neutralizing antibodies against the omicron and delta variants, vs the wild-type virus, in response to a fourth BNT162b2 dose in 90 heart transplant (HT) recipients. The fourth dose induced anti-RBD IgG antibodies and a higher neutralization efficiency against the wild-type virus and the variants; however, neutralization efficiency against the omicron variant was lower than that against the delta variant (the latter demonstrating efficacy similar to that against the wild-type virus). Notably, while IgG anti-RBD antibodies were detectable in >80% of the HT recipients, only about half demonstrated neutralization efficiency against the omicron variant. A SARS-CoV-2-specific-T-cell response following the fourth dose was evident in the majority of transplant recipients. Boosting vulnerable groups improves antibody responses (including neutralizing responses) and cellular immunity, but the incomplete immunological response, particularly for omicron, suggests continued preventive measures and optimization of vaccination strategies that elicit strong, and long-lasting immune responses, in this high-risk population, should remain a priority.

7.
J Hepatol ; 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immune responses of solid organ transplant recipients to 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine are impaired. The immunogenicity and safety of a third dose among liver transplant (LT) recipients are unknown. This work aimed to evaluate the immune response of LT recipients to a third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: Consecutive LT recipients (n = 61) in follow-up at Sheba Medical Center were included. Receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG, neutralizing antibody (NA) titers, and T-cell levels before and 21-28 days after a third vaccine dose were determined. Adverse effects after the third dose were monitored. RESULTS: The median age of LT recipients was 65 years and 57.4% were male. The humoral immune response rate improved significantly, with 56% of patients showing a response before the third vaccine dose compared to 98% after the third dose. The cellular response in 12 evaluated patients improved significantly (p = 0.008). The geometric mean of anti-RBD IgG levels, NA levels, and T-cell count also increased significantly after the third dose. NA titers after the third dose negatively correlated with age (p = 0.03), mycophenolate mofetil treatment (p = 0.005), and combined immunosuppression as opposed to calcineurin inhibitor monotherapy (p = 0.001). After the third dose, adverse effects were reported by 37% of recipients and were mostly mild (local pain and fatigue). CONCLUSION: After a third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, the immune response improved significantly among LT recipients, without serious adverse effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate immune response durability and to determine the optimal number and schedule of booster vaccine doses. LAY SUMMARY: The Pfizer-Biotech BNT162b2SARS-CoV-2 vaccine induced significant immunity among liver transplant recipients after a third dose. The majority of the patients developed sufficient levels of both humoral and cellular immune responses. Factors that predict non-response were older age and immunosuppressive medications.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792642

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis and pericarditis are potential post-acute cardiac sequelae of COVID-19 infection, arising from adaptive immune responses. We aimed to study the incidence of post-acute COVID-19 myocarditis and pericarditis. Retrospective cohort study of 196,992 adults after COVID-19 infection in Clalit Health Services members in Israel between March 2020 and January 2021. Inpatient myocarditis and pericarditis diagnoses were retrieved from day 10 after positive PCR. Follow-up was censored on 28 February 2021, with minimum observation of 18 days. The control cohort of 590,976 adults with at least one negative PCR and no positive PCR were age- and sex-matched. Since the Israeli vaccination program was initiated on 20 December 2020, the time-period matching of the control cohort was calculated backward from 15 December 2020. Nine post-COVID-19 patients developed myocarditis (0.0046%), and eleven patients were diagnosed with pericarditis (0.0056%). In the control cohort, 27 patients had myocarditis (0.0046%) and 52 had pericarditis (0.0088%). Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.93 to 1.00) and male sex (aHR 4.42; 95% CI, 1.64 to 11.96) were associated with myocarditis. Male sex (aHR 1.93; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.41) and peripheral vascular disease (aHR 4.20; 95% CI 1.50 to 11.72) were associated with pericarditis. Post COVID-19 infection was not associated with either myocarditis (aHR 1.08; 95% CI 0.45 to 2.56) or pericarditis (aHR 0.53; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.13). We did not observe an increased incidence of neither pericarditis nor myocarditis in adult patients recovering from COVID-19 infection.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319934

ABSTRACT

Background: BNT162b2 was shown to be 92% effective in preventing COVID-19. Prioritizing vaccine rollout, and achievement of herd immunity depend on SARS-CoV-2 transmission reduction. The vaccine’s effect on infectivity is thus a critical priority.Methods: In a cohort of all 9650 HCW of a large single tertiary medical center, we calculated the prevalence of positive SAR-CoV-2 qRT-PCR cases with an asymptomatic presentation, tested following known or presumed exposure and the infectious subset (N-gene-Ct-value<30) of these and the prevalence of never-symptomatic infections. Additionally, infection incidence rates were calculated for symptomatic cases and infectious (Ct<30) cases. Vaccine effectiveness within three months of vaccine rollout was measured as one minus the relative risk or rate ratio, respectively. To further assess infectiousness, we compared the mean Ct-value and the proportion of infections with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen test of vaccinated vs. unvaccinated. The correlation between IgG levels within the week before detection and Ct level was assessed.Findings: Reduced prevalence among fully vaccinated HCW was observed for (i) infections detected due to exposure, with asymptomatic presentation (VE(i)=65.1%, 95%CI 45-79%), (ii) the presumed infectious (Ct<30) subset of these (VE(ii)=69.6%, 95%CI 43-84%) (iii) never-symptomatic infections (VE(iii)=72.3%, 95%CI 48-86%), and (iv) the presumed infectious (Ct<30) subset (VE(iv)=83.0%, 95%CI 51-94%).Incidence of (v) symptomatic and (vi) symptomatic-infectious cases was significantly lower among fully vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals (VE(v)= 89.7%, 95%CI 84-94%, VE(vi)=88.1%, 95%CI 80-95%).The mean Ct-value was significantly higher in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated (27.3±1.2 vs. 22.2±1.0, p<0.001) and the proportion of positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests was also significantly lower among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated PCR-positive HCW (80% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Lower infectivity was correlated with higher IgG concentrations (R=0.36, p=0.01).Interpretation: These results suggest that BNT162b2 is moderately to highly effective in reducing infectivity, via preventing infection and through reducing viral shedding. Funding: Sheba Medical Center, IsraelDeclaration of Interest: All authors declare they have no competing interestsEthical Approval: The Sheba Ethical committee, reviewed the protocol and approved thestudy.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2122255, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378909

ABSTRACT

Importance: Allergic reactions among some individuals who received the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccine discourage patients with allergic conditions from receiving this vaccine and physicians from recommending the vaccine. Objective: To describe the assessment and immunization of highly allergic individuals with the BNT162b2 vaccine. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective cohort study from December 27, 2020, to February 22, 2021, 8102 patients with allergies who applied to the COVID 19 vaccine referral center at the Sheba Medical Center underwent risk assessment using an algorithm that included a detailed questionnaire. High-risk patients (n = 429) were considered "highly allergic" and were immunized under medical supervision. Exposures: Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic and anaphylactic reactions after the first and second doses of BNT162b2 vaccine among highly allergic patients. Results: Of the 429 individuals who applied to the COVID-19 referral center and were defined as highly allergic, 304 (70.9%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 52 (16) years. This highly allergic group was referred to receive immunization under medical supervision. After the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, 420 patients (97.9%) had no immediate allergic event, 6 (1.4%) developed minor allergic responses, and 3 (0.7%) had anaphylactic reactions. During the study period, 218 highly allergic patients (50.8%) received the second BNT162b2 vaccine dose, of which 214 (98.2%) had no allergic reactions and 4 patients (1.8%) had minor allergic reactions. Other immediate and late reactions were comparable with those seen in the general population, except for delayed itch and skin eruption, which were more common among allergic patients. Conclusions and Relevance: The rate of allergic reactions to BNT162b2 vaccine, is higher among patients with allergies, particularly among a subgroup with a history of high-risk allergies. This study suggests that most patients with a history of allergic diseases and, particularly, highly allergic patients can be safely immunized by using an algorithm that can be implemented in different medical facilities and includes a referral center, a risk assessment questionnaire, and a setting for immunization under medical supervision of highly allergic patients. Further studies are required to define more specific risk factors for allergic reactions to the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(2): 148-157, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The repeated waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted the necessity to optimize vaccine responses in immunocompromised populations. We investigated the safety and immunogenicity of a third, booster, dose of the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine in heart transplant (HT) patients. METHODS: The cohort comprised 96 adult HT patients who received a third homologous dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine 168 days after the second dose. The vaccine-induced antibody responses of both receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG and neutralizing antibodies were assessed in all patients, with a positive antibody response being defined as the presence of either IgG anti-RBD or neutralizing antibodies. For a subset of patients, T cell response was also studied. RESULTS: The third dose was associated with a low rate of adverse events, mostly mild pain at the injection site. No serious adverse events were recorded, and there were no episodes of rejection. At 18 days following the third dose of the vaccine, the positive antibody response increased from 23% to 67%, with a corresponding increase in neutralizing capacity. The third dose elicited SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers >9-fold and IgG anti-RBD antibodies >3-fold of the range achieved after the two primary doses. Mycophenolate use, lower eGFR and higher C-reactive protein were independently associated with a reduced likelihood of generating an immune response. Importantly, a specific T-cell response following the third dose was evident in the majority of transplant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: An homologous third booster dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine gave overall consistent tolerability and a good safety profile, while eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Transplantation , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 7: 100150, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BNT162b2 was shown to be 92% effective in preventing COVID-19. Prioritizing vaccine rollout, and achievement of herd immunity depend on SARS-CoV-2 transmission reduction. The vaccine's effect on infectivity is thus a critical priority. METHODS: Among all 9650 HCW of a large tertiary medical center in Israel, we calculated the prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR cases with asymptomatic presentation, tested following known or presumed exposure and the infectious subset (N-gene-Ct-value<30) of these. Additionally, infection incidence rates were calculated for symptomatic cases and infectious (Ct<30) cases. Vaccine effectiveness within three months of vaccine rollout was measured as one minus the relative risk or rate ratio, respectively. To further assess infectiousness, we compared the mean Ct-value and the proportion of infections with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen test of vaccinated vs. unvaccinated. The correlation between IgG levels within the week before detection and Ct level was assessed. FINDINGS: Reduced prevalence among fully vaccinated HCW was observed for (i) infections detected due to exposure, with asymptomatic presentation (VE(i)=65.1%, 95%CI 45-79%), (ii) the presumed infectious (Ct<30) subset of these (VE(ii)=69.6%, 95%CI 43-84%) (iii) never-symptomatic infections (VE(iii)=72.3%, 95%CI 48-86%), and (iv) the presumed infectious (Ct<30) subset (VE(iv)=83.0%, 95%CI 51-94%).Incidence of (v) symptomatic and (vi) symptomatic-infectious cases was significantly lower among fully vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals (VE(v)= 89.7%, 95%CI 84-94%, VE(vi)=88.1%, 95%CI 80-95%).The mean Ct-value was significantly higher in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated (27.3±1.2 vs. 22.2±1.0, p<0.001) and the proportion of positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests was also significantly lower among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated PCR-positive HCW (80% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Lower infectivity was correlated with higher IgG concentrations (R=0.36, p=0.01). INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that BNT162b2 is moderately to highly effective in reducing infectivity, via preventing infection and through reducing viral shedding. FUNDING: Sheba Medical Center, Israel.

16.
Emerg Med J ; 38(5): 373-378, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153688

ABSTRACT

Anticipating the need for a COVID-19 treatment centre in Israel, a designated facility was established at Sheba Medical Center-a quaternary referral centre. The goals were diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 while protecting patients and staff from infection and ensuring operational continuity and treatment of patients with non-COVID. Options considered included adaptation of existing wards, building a tented facility and converting a non-medical structure. The option chosen was a non-medical structure converted to a hospitalisation facility suited for COVID-19 with appropriate logistic and organisational adaptations. Operational principles included patient isolation, unidirectional workflow from clean to contaminated zones and minimising direct contact between patients and caregivers using personal protection equipment (PPE) and a multimodal telemedicine system. The ED was modified to enable triage and treatment of patients with COVID-19 while maintaining a COVID-19-free environment in the main campus. This system enabled treatment of patients with COVID-19 while maintaining staff safety and conserving the operational continuity and the ability to continue delivery of treatment to patients with non-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Israel/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Triage/organization & administration , Workflow
18.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110399, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the mental health outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The aims of the study were: (1) to examine the trajectories of anxiety, depression, and pandemic-related stress factors (PRSF) of COVID-19 hospitalized patients one-month following hospitalization; (2) to assess the presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a month after hospitalization; (3) to identify baseline risk and protective factors that would predict PTSS one month after hospitalization. METHODS: We contacted hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 64) by phone, at three time-points: during the first days after admission to the hospital (T1); after ~two weeks from the beginning of hospitalization (T2), and one month after hospitalization (T3). At all time-points we assessed the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as PRSF. At T3, PTSS were assessed. RESULTS: The levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms decreased one-month following hospitalization. Moreover, higher levels of anxiety (standardized ß = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.81-1.49, p < 0.001) and depression (ß = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.63-1.31 p < 0.001) symptoms during the first week of hospitalization, feeling socially disconnected (ß = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.81 p < 0.001) and experiencing a longer hospitalization period (ß = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.03-0.47 p = 0.026) predicted higher PTSS scores a month post-hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: We identified early hospitalization risk factors for the development of PTSS one month after hospitalization that should be targeted to reduce the risk for PTSS.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Hospitalization , Inpatients/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Symptom Assessment
19.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 470-475, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, is a tertiary hospital located in the center of Israel. It is the largest hospital in Israel and was the first to face coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients in the country at the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on our triage method in the emergency department (ED). Our goal was to keep the main hospitalization buildings clean of infection by separating COVID-19 positive patients from COVID-19 negative patients. METHODS: We divided our ED into two separate sections: a regular non-COVID-19 ED and an advanced biological ED. We created clear protocols of triage for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients. We reviewed the data of patients admitted to our ED during the month of March and analyzed the results of our triage method in separating COVID-19 positive from negative patients. RESULTS: During the month of March 2020, 7957 patients were referred to our ED. Among them 2004 were referred to the biological ED and 5953 were referred to the regular ED. Of the 2004 patients referred to the biological ED, 1641 (81.8%) were sampled for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction of whom 143 (8.7%) were positive. Only two COVID-19 positive patients unintentionally entered the main clean hospital, making our triage almost full proof. CONCLUSIONS: Our triage method was successful in separating COVID-19 positive from negative patients and maintained the regular hospital clean of COVID-19 allowing treatment continuation of regular non-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Triage/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 581598, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904687

ABSTRACT

Background: While focusing on the management and care of COVID-19 patients, the mental health of these patients and their relatives is being overlooked. The aim of the current study was to measure anxiety and depression, and to assess their association with socio-demographic and pandemic-related stress factors in COVID-19 patients and their relatives during the initial stage of hospitalization. Methods: We assessed isolated hospitalized patients (N = 90) and their relatives (adults and children, N = 125) by phone, 25-72 h following patients' admission. The quantitative measures included the Anxiety and Depression modules of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and pandemic-related stress factors. Qualitative measures included questions exploring worries, sadness, and coping modes. Results: Both patients and relatives suffer from high levels of anxiety and related pandemic worries, with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Compared to adult relatives, child relatives reported significantly lower anxiety. The multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an increased risk for anxiety among females and a decreased risk among ultra-orthodox participants. While increased anxiety among patients was associated with feelings of isolation, increased anxiety among relatives was associated with a feeling of not being protected by the hospital. Conclusions: Patients and relatives experience similar high anxiety levels which are more robust in women and lower in ultra-orthodox participants. Our findings indicate that anxiety symptoms of both patients and adult relatives should be addressed.

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