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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054310

ABSTRACT

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This sequential, prospective meta-analysis (sPMA) sought to identify risk factors among pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 for adverse outcomes related to: disease severity, maternal morbidities, neonatal mortality and morbidity, adverse birth outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We prospectively invited study investigators to join the sPMA via professional research networks beginning in March 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible studies included those recruiting at least 25 consecutive cases of COVID-19 in pregnancy within a defined catchment area. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: We included individual patient data from 21 participating studies. Data quality was assessed, and harmonized variables for risk factors and outcomes were constructed. Duplicate cases were removed. Pooled estimates for the absolute and relative risk of adverse outcomes comparing those with and without each risk factor were generated using a two-stage meta-analysis. RESULTS: We collected data from 33 countries and territories, including 21,977 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy or postpartum. We found that women with comorbidities (pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease) versus those without were at higher risk for COVID-19 severity and pregnancy health outcomes (fetal death, preterm birth, low birthweight). Participants with COVID-19 and HIV were 1.74 times (95% CI: 1.12, 2.71) more likely to be admitted to the ICU. Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy were at higher risk of ICU admission (RR 5.53, 95% CI: 2.27, 13.44), ventilation (RR 9.36, 95% CI: 3.87, 22.63), and pregnancy-related death (RR 14.10, 95% CI: 2.83, 70.36). Pre-pregnancy obesity was also a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes including ICU admission (RR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.26,2.60), ventilation (RR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.20,3.51), any critical care (RR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.28,2.77), and pneumonia (RR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18,2.33). Anemic pregnant women with COVID-19 also had increased risk of ICU admission (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.11) and death (RR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.81). CONCLUSION: We found that pregnant women with comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related outcomes, maternal morbidities, and adverse birth outcomes. We also identified several less commonly-known risk factors, including HIV infection, pre-pregnancy underweight, and anemia. Although pregnant women are already considered a high-risk population, special priority for prevention and treatment should be given to pregnant women with these additional risk factors.

3.
JCI Insight ; 7(12)2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there are limited data comparing vaccine- and infection-induced neutralizing Abs (nAbs) against COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the 5 SARS-CoV-2 spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2-pseudotyped spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared with WT spike protein, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord-nAb levels at delivery than did infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared with infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level divided by maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicits effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that are influenced by gestational time of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Mothers , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 368-372, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes associated with monoclonal antibody use in pregnant persons with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We present a retrospective case series of pregnant patients who received anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibody infusions at a single center from April 1, 2021, through October 16, 2021. Pregnant patients who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms were eligible for monoclonal antibody infusion. Exclusion criteria for administration included need for supplemental oxygen, hospitalization due to COVID-19, and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result more than 7 days before screening. All patients received either bamlanivimab plus etesevimab or casirivimab plus imdevimab based on availability and dosing instructions of the product and emerging resistance patterns in the community. RESULTS: During the study period, monoclonal antibody infusions were administered to 450 individuals at our institution, of whom 15 were pregnant. Of the 15 pregnant persons receiving monoclonal antibody, six (40%) had full-vaccination status at the time of infusion. Two individuals (13%, CI 0-31%) experienced systemic reactions during the infusion, both resulting in temporary changes in the fetal heart rate tracing that recovered with maternal and intrauterine resuscitative efforts. One patient delivered after infusion for worsening maternal and fetal status; the remainder of the patients did not require admission for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series, pregnant persons who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody infusions had generally favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Fetal Heart/drug effects , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
7.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 226(1):S603-S604, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1588430
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296833

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there is limited data comparing vaccine versus infection-induced nAb to COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines were matched with 30 naturally infected women by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the five SARS-CoV-2 Spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped Spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared to wild type or Alpha variant Spike, these nAbs were less effective against the Kappa, Delta, and Mu Spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher nAb levels at delivery than infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared to infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level/maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicit effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that is impacted by gestational time of exposure. Vaccine induced neutralizing activity was reduced against the Delta, Mu, and Kappa variants. Graphic abstract

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2810-e2813, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501000

ABSTRACT

Infant outcomes after maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well described. In a prospective US registry of 263 infants, maternal SARS-CoV-2 status was not associated with birth weight, difficulty breathing, apnea, or upper or lower respiratory infection through 8 weeks of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(5): 492-500, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the level of intent to receive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and demographical factors influencing vaccine uptake among pregnant individuals. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, Scopus, and archive/pre-print servers were searched up to May 22nd, 2021. Cross sectional surveys reporting the percentage of the pregnant individuals intending to get a COVID-19 vaccine were considered eligible for meta-analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021254484). The primary outcome was to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination intent among pregnant population. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the factors influencing the intention for vaccination. RESULTS: Twelve studies sourcing data of 16,926 individuals who were identified as pregnant were eligible. The estimated intention for the receipt of COVID-19 vaccine among women who were pregnant was 47% (95% CI: 38-57%), with the lowest prevalence in Africa 19% (95% CI: 17-21%) and the highest in Oceania 48.0% (95% CI: 44.0-51.0%). Uptake of other vaccines (influenza and/or TdaP) during pregnancy was associated with higher rate of intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 3.03; 95% CI: 1.37-6.73; p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine is relatively low among women who are pregnant and substantially varies based on the country of residence. In our meta-analysis, intent of women who were pregnant to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was significantly associated with the history of receiving influenza or TdaP vaccine during pregnancy. Given that in every country only a minority of gravidae have received the COVID-19 vaccine, despite known risks of maternal morbidity and mortality with no evidence of risks of vaccination, it highlights the importance of revised approaches at shared decision making and focused public health messaging by national and international advisories. KEY POINTS: · The estimated global intention for COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women was 47%.. · The lowest intention was in Africa and the highest in Oceania.. · These findings highlight the importance of public health messaging by by different agencies..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pregnancy , Vaccination
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 616-621, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize respiratory emissions produced during labor and vaginal delivery vis-à-vis the potential for transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Observational study of three women who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. Using background-oriented schlieren imaging, we evaluated the propagation of respiratory emissions produced during the labor course and delivery. The primary outcome was the speed and propagation of breath over time, calculated through processed images collected throughout labor and delivery. RESULTS: In early labor with regular breathing, the speed of the breath was 1.37 meters/s (range 1.20-1.55 meters/s). The breath appeared to propagate faster with a cough during early labor at a speed of 1.69 meters/s (range 1.22-2.27 meters/s). During the second stage of labor with Valsalva and forced expiration, the propagation speed was 1.79 meters/s (range 1.71-1.86 meters/s). CONCLUSION: Labor and vaginal delivery increase the propagation of respiratory emissions that may increase risk of respiratory transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Labor, Obstetric/physiology , Respiration , Adult , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagina , Young Adult
13.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 747-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A majority of studies evaluating the risk of vertical transmission and adverse outcomes in pregnancies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are mostly based on third-trimester infections. There is limited data available on pregnancy sequelae of maternal infection in the first or second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: We present a patient with monochorionic-diamniotic twins that develops coronavirus disease 2019 infection at 15 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy is further complicated by stage II twin-twin transfusion syndrome. She undergoes laser ablation, which is complicated by development of a subchorionic hematoma. The patient then develops Escherichia coli bacteremia, resulting in septic shock and preterm labor followed by previable delivery at 21 weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid and placenta were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: This case of SARS-CoV-2 argues against transplacental transmission after a second-trimester infection but brings attention to the possible downstream complications that may arise following early infection. KEY POINTS: · Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not evident after a second-trimester infection.. · Antepartum coronavirus disease 2019 may cause vascular placental changes and placental insufficiency.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a maternal hypercoagulable state with adverse perinatal outcomes..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Fetofetal Transfusion , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Shock, Septic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Escherichia coli Infections/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fetofetal Transfusion/diagnosis , Fetofetal Transfusion/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta/diagnostic imaging , Placenta/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Twin , Premature Birth/etiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/etiology , Twins, Monozygotic , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1117-1125, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, symptomology, and disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: The PRIORITY (Pregnancy CoRonavIrus Outcomes RegIsTrY) study is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study of people in the United States who are pregnant or up to 6 weeks postpregnancy with known or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We analyzed the clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19 in participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and reported symptoms at the time of testing. RESULTS: Of 991 participants enrolled from March 22, 2020, until July 10, 2020, 736 had symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of testing; 594 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 142 tested negative in this symptomatic group. Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.1), and 37% will nulliparous. Ninety-five percent were outpatients. Participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-infection were a geographically diverse cohort: 34% from the Northeast, 25% from the West, 21% from the South, and 18% from the Midwest. Thirty-one percent of study participants were Latina, and 9% were Black. The average gestational age at enrollment was 24.1 weeks, and 13% of participants were enrolled after pregnancy. The most prevalent first symptoms in the cohort of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were cough (20%), sore throat (16%), body aches (12%), and fever (12%). Median time to symptom resolution was 37 days (95% CI 35-39). One quarter (25%) of participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection had persistent symptoms 8 or more weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a prolonged and nonspecific disease course during pregnancy and in the 6 weeks after pregnancy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04323839.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Neoreviews ; 21(12): e783-e794, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954964

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is highly contagious and can cause serious respiratory illness and other clinical manifestations. The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes of COVID-19 in pregnant women and neonates, who may be especially vulnerable to the effects of COVID-19, and to discuss what is known about potential maternal-fetal and maternal-neonatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Physical Distancing , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(1): 82-87, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and resulting in premature delivery. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical course of two women hospitalized with ARDS due to COVID-19 care in our intensive care (ICU) is summarized; both participants provided consent to be included in this case series. RESULTS: Both women recovered with no clinical sequelae. Neonatal outcomes were within the realm of expected for prematurity with the exception of coagulopathy. There was no vertical transmission to the neonates. CONCLUSION: This case series highlights that ECMO is a feasible treatment in the pregnant woman with severe COVID-19 and that delivery can be performed safely on ECMO with no additional risk to the fetus. While ECMO carries its natural risks, it should be considered a viable option during pregnancy and the postpartum period. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 may present with a more severe course in pregnancy.. · ECMO may be used in pregnant woman with severe COVID-19.. · Delivery can be performed on ECMO without added fetal risk..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cesarean Section/methods , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Obesity/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Adjustment/methods , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 925-930, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841764

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women may be at risk for more severe manifestations and sequelae of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At this time, there remain significant evidence gaps to allow for comprehensive counseling of pregnant women and their families, specifically regarding the risks of gestational-age specific maternal outcomes and potential risks of intrauterine or peripartum viral transmission to the fetus or newborn. As maternal fetal medicine providers and consultants, we are uniquely positioned to mitigate the risks associated with maternal infection and to guide the care for infected pregnant women by being able to provide the most current evidence-based recommendations. Such care requires incorporating the rapidly evolving data regarding this virus and its impact on pregnancy, as well as taking a stand to advocate for best scientific and clinical practices to optimize both women's health and public health during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Perinatal Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Obstetrics/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Prenatal Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1301-1309, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the response of labor and delivery (L&D) units in the United States to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and determine how institutional characteristics and regional disease prevalence affect viral testing and personal protective equipment (PPE). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically through the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine e-mail database (n = 584 distinct practices) and social media between April 14 and 23, 2020. Participants were recruited through "snowballing." A single representative was asked to respond on behalf of each L&D unit. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariable regression was performed to explore characteristics associated with universal testing and PPE usage. RESULTS: A total of 301 surveys (estimated 51.5% response rate) was analyzed representing 48 states and two territories. Obstetrical units included academic (31%), community teaching (45%) and nonteaching hospitals (24%). Sixteen percent of respondents were from states with high prevalence, defined as higher "deaths per million" rates compared with the national average. Universal laboratory testing for admissions was reported for 40% (119/297) of units. After adjusting for covariates, universal testing was more common in academic institutions (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.42) and high prevalence states (aOR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.37-5.28). When delivering asymptomatic patients, full PPE (including N95 mask) was recommended for vaginal deliveries in 33% and for cesarean delivery in 38% of responding institutions. N95 mask use during asymptomatic vaginal deliveries remained more likely in high prevalence states (aOR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.29-5.09) and less likely in hospitals with universal testing (aOR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.24-0.73). CONCLUSION: Universal laboratory testing for COVID-19 is more common at academic institutions and in states with high disease prevalence. Centers with universal testing were less likely to recommend N95 masks for asymptomatic vaginal deliveries, suggesting that viral testing can play a role in guiding efficient PPE use. KEY POINTS: · Heterogeneity is seen in institutional recommendations for viral testing and PPE.. · Universal laboratory testing for COVID-19 is more common at academic centers.. · N95 mask use during vaginal deliveries is less likely in places with universal testing..


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Delivery, Obstetric , Infection Control , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/standards , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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