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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(11): 3000605221137443, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Viral load varies during infection and is higher during the initial stages of disease. Given the importance of the intensive care unit (ICU) in the late stages of COVID-19 infection, analyzing cycle threshold values to detect viral load upon ICU admission can be a clinically valuable tool for identifying patients with the highest mortality risk. METHODS: This was a retrospectively designed study. Patients older than 18 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR and had a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 were included in the study. The patient population was divided into two groups: survivors and non-survivors. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were included in the study. In non-survivors, age, relevant ICU admission scores, and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher whereas PaO2/FiO2 ratios and cycle threshold levels were significantly lower than in survivors. CONCLUSION: Viral load at ICU admission has significant prognostic value. In combination with age, comorbidities, and severity scores, viral load may assist clinicians in identifying individuals who need more intensive monitoring. Increased awareness may improve outcomes by allowing the more effective monitoring and treatment of patients. More prospective studies are needed to determine how a high viral load worsens disease and how to avoid irreversible results.

2.
Andrology ; 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 is an ongoing health problem with millions of cases and deaths worldwide. Although the virus is transmitted with droplets through the respiratory system, involvement of different organs has been reported. OBJECTIVES: The pandemic caused urological procedures to be postponed when patient is infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, the reliability of one month postpone period and long term complications of the virus, such as a possible erectile dysfunction is not clarified. We aimed to compare the corpus cavernosum of patients one month and seven months after COVID-19 infection with control patients who had not COVID-19, and search for SARS-CoV-2 in tissues using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of subjects underwent penile prosthesis implantation and Nesbit procedure for Peyronie's disease one month and seven months after COVID-19 infection and control group without previous COVID-19 infection. We searched for SARS-CoV-2 in penile tissue using RT-PCR, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining showed SARS CoV-2 virus in penile corpus cavernosum of patients one month after COVID-19 recovery. Immunohistochemical staining intensity correlated with the severity of previous infection. TEM revealed intracellular virusal particles of about 80 nm with typical morphology of prominent spikes and electron-dense dots of nucleocapsid in addition to vesicles filled with virus-like particles. Cells showed increased membrane trafficking. The one month after COVID-19 group showed increased number of fibroblasts. The seven months after COVID-19 group had similar morphology and immunoreactivity as control group. DISCUSSION: This is the first study of late post-covid examination of penis and the second study of early post-covid examination of corpus cavernosum. For one month post-covid patients, the etiology of erectile dysfunction could be the viral infection which is also affecting corpora cavernosa. We hypothesize that viral infection affects the endocytic and exocytic pathways, hence the metabolic activity of cells that can be the reason of altered functions in some post-covid patients. CONCLUSION: This study is important that it did not detect any virus residue in the tissue samples at the seventh month. And we can say that the penile surgeries should be postponed more than one month after the COVID infection according to this study. But, there is a need for new studies with large series and high level of evidence that can show how long the virus remains in the corpus cavernosum. Patients should be followed in this respect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(11): 4482-4490, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine represents a cornerstone in tackling the pandemic and with the approval of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in December 2020, it has become a beacon of hope for people around the world, including children. This study aimed to present the data on the humoral response and safety of vaccine in a cohort of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases receiving immunomodulatory treatments. METHODS: Forty-one children with paediatric rheumatic diseases were included and were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (two doses of 30 µg administered 3-4 weeks apart). To assess the humoral response, IgG antibodies developed against the S1/Receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein at baseline and 3-4 weeks after the second dose were measured. The possible local and systemic side effects and disease activity scores were evaluated during the study period. RESULTS: After the second dose of vaccine, markedly elevated anti-RBD IgG titres were observed in all patients with a median titre of 20 474 AU/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 6534-36 151] with a good safety profile. The median disease duration was 4.3 (IQR 3.5-5.6) years. In the cohort, 14 (34.1%) received conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs), 16 (39%) received biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) and 11 (26.8%) received a combined therapy (cDMARDs and bDMARDs). Patients treated with combined therapy [median 4695 (IQR 2764-26 491)] had significantly lower median titres of anti-RBD IgG than those receiving only cDMARDs. CONCLUSION: Paediatric rheumatic diseases patients receiving immunomodulatory treatments were able to mount an effective humoral response after two dose regimens of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine safely without interrupting their current treatments.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccines, Inactivated , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Rheumatic Diseases/chemically induced
4.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2022: 2826524, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064330

ABSTRACT

Background: Thorax computed tomography (CT) imaging is widely used as a diagnostic method in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia. Radiological differential diagnosis and isolation of other viral agents causing pneumonia in patients have gained importance, particularly during the pandemic. Aims: We aimed to investigate whether there is a difference between CT images from patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia compared to CT images of patients with pneumonia due to other viral agents and which finding may be more effective in diagnosis. Study Design. The study included 249 adult patients with pneumonia identified by thorax CT examination and with a positive COVID-19 RT-PCR test compared to 94 patients diagnosed with non-COVID-19 pneumonia (viral PCR positive but no bacterial or fungal agents detected in other cultures) between 2015 and 2019. CT images were retrospectively analyzed using the PACS system. CT findings were evaluated by two radiologists with 5 and 20 years of experience, in a blinded fashion, and the outcome was decided by consensus. Methods: Demographic data (age, gender, and known chronic disease) and CT imaging findings (percentage of involvement, number of lesions, distribution preference, dominant pattern, ground-glass opacity distribution pattern, nodule, tree in bud sign, interstitial changes, crazy paving sign, reversed halo sign, vacuolar sign, halo sign, vascular enlargement, linear opacities, traction bronchiectasis, peribronchial wall thickness, air trapping, pleural retraction, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, cavitation, mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy, dominant lesion size, consolidation, subpleural curvilinear opacities, air bronchogram, and pleural thickening) of the patients were evaluated. CT findings were also evaluated with the RSNA consensus guideline and the CORADS scoring system. Data were divided into two main groups-non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia-and compared statistically with chi-squared tests and multiple regression analysis of independent variables. Results: RSNA and CORADS classifications of CT scan images were able to successfully differentiate between positive and negative COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Statistically significant differences were found between the two patient groups in various categories including the percentage of involvement, number of lesions, distribution preference, dominant pattern, nodule, tree in bud, interstitial changes, crazy paving, reverse halo vascular enlargement, peribronchial wall thickness, air trapping, pleural retraction, pleural/pericardial effusion, cavitation, and mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis of independent variables found a significant effect in reverse halo sign (ß = 0.097, p < 0.05) and pleural effusion (ß = 10.631, p < 0.05) on COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Conclusion: The presence of reverse halo and absence of pleural effusion was found to be characteristic of COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore a reliable diagnostic tool to differentiate it from non-COVID-19 pneumonia.

5.
Yoğun Bakım &Uuml ; nitesinde COVID-19 Virolojik Testlerinin Akılcı Kullanımı.; 28(3):201-205, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2056491

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic reminded once again that microbiological diagnostic methods are irreplaceable in both diagnosing and detecting asymptomatic persons. At present, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard method for diagnosing COVID-19, but the test’s accuracy varies in sample quality. Especially in the last stages of the disease, negative results of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab samples or rapid antigen tests do not necessarily mean that these patients do not carry the virus. Considering that a significant number of COVID-19 patients need intensive care and mechanical ventilation in the late period, which sample should be taken from where and when should be evaluated. Lower respiratory tract samples have a more significant chance of finding viral RNA than upper respiratory tract samples. Technical recommendations and the virological diagnostic methodologies and used in the intensive care unit of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are summarized in this article. We aimed to emphasize the need to get a sample from the right place at the right time for a reliable virological diagnosis. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Koronavirüs hastalığı-19 (COVID-19) pandemisi gerek tanıda gerekse asemptomatik kişilerin tespitinde mikrobiyolojik tanı yöntemlerinin vazgeçilmez olduğunu bir kez daha hatırlatmıştır. Günümüzde gerçek zamanlı revers transkriptaz polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu halen COVID-19 tanısı için altın standart tanı yöntemi olarak kabul edilmektedir, ancak testin doğruluğu alınan örneğin zamanlamasına ve kalitesine göre değişebilmektedir. Özellikle hastalığın ileri evrelerinde nazofarengeal veya orofarengeal sürüntü örneklerinin ya da hızlı antijen testlerinin negatif olarak sonuçlanması bu hastaların kesin olarak virüsü taşımadıkları anlamına gelmez. Ciddi sayıda COVID-19 hastasının geç dönemde yoğun bakım ve mekanik ventilasyona ihtiyacı olduğu düşünüldüğünde, nereden ve ne zaman numune alınması gerektiği iyi değerlendirilmelidir. Alt solunum yolu örneklerinde viral RNA bulma şansı üst solunum yolu örneklerine göre daha fazladır. SARS-CoV-2 ile enfekte hastaların yoğun bakım ünitesinde kullanılan virolojik tanı metodolojileri ve teknik öneriler bu yazıda özetlendi. Amacımız, güvenilir bir virolojik tanı için doğru zamanda doğru yerden örnek alınması gereksinimini vurgulamaktır. (Turkish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of the Society of Thoracic Carido-Vascular Anaesthesia & Intensive Care is the property of Gogus Kalp Damar Anestezi ve Yogun Bakim Dernegi and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1075-1080, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been among the major infectious events of the century. In today's literature where COVID-19 and host factor effects are frequently examined, we aimed to examine another factor: Circadian Clock Protein PERIOD 3 (PER3). There is a significant correlation between PER3 gene polymorphism and circadian rhythm disturbances and immune system dysregulation. METHODS: In our study, we recruited 200 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in our hospital between April-June 2020, and 100 volunteers without known comorbidities to create a healthy control group. After comparing the initial gene polymorphisms of the patients with healthy controls, three separate clinical subgroups were formed. Gene polymorphism distribution and statistical significance were examined in the formed patient groups. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the patient group and the healthy controls (P>0.05, for all). When patients were divided into two separate clinical subgroups as exitus/alive according to their last condition during their 28-day follow-up, the 4R/5R genotype was significantly more common in patients with a mortal course (P=0.007). The PER3 4R/5R genotype was found at a significantly higher rate in the group of patients with the need for intensive care (P=0.034). CONCLUSION: The 4R/5R genotype may be associated with the need for intensive care and mortality in COVID-19 patients. These important results will be a guide for future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , Period Circadian Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minisatellite Repeats , Patient Acuity , Polymorphism, Genetic , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 648-655, 2021 Oct.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478368

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a species of fungus that has gained importance in recent years owing to its ability to cause hospital infections and epidemics, resistant to antifungal agents and disinfection processes and frequently misidentified by commercial systems. Hospital outbreaks caused by C.auris have been reported from some countries. It has been determined that C.auris has lower virulence than Candida albicans; however, it is associated with high mortality rates in immunocompromised individuals. An increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections which can lead to serious complications and death, has been identified in severe coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patients or immunocompromised individuals with underlying disease. Studies demonstrated an increase in the frequency of C.auris isolation in COVID-19 patients with candidemia. In this report, the first case of COVID-19 positive C.auris fungemia detected in Turkey was presented. A 71-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, donation of a single kidney and lobectomy surgery due to lung cancer was hospitalized in the pandemic thoracic surgery service due to the findings consistent with viral pneumonia on thoracic computed tomography. Favipiravir 2 x 600 mg and intravenous dexamethasone 1 x 6 mg therapy was administered. The patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction, and severe involvement of the left lung was detected in the following days. Antibiotics were administered, followed by insertion of a right jugular vein catheter and initation of tocilizumab. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit due to increased respiratory distress. Yeast growth was detected in the patient's hemoculture. The yeast strain could not be identified using API ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) (Sacchromyces kluyveri, Candida sake, unacceptable profile), but was identified as C.auris using the VITEK MALDI TOF MS (bioMerieux, France) (99.9%) system and confirmed by sequencing. The minimum inhibitor concentration values were detected as 3 µg/ml for amphotericin B; > 256 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.19 µg/ml for voriconazole; 0.19 µg/ml for itraconazole; 0.016 µg/ml for posaconazole; 1 µg/ml for caspofungin and 0.094 µg/ml for anidulafungin by using the antibiotic gradient method. The patient's initial treatment comprised meropenem 3 x 1 g, vancomycin 2 x 1 g, caspofungin 1 x 70 mg, and continued as caspofungine 1 x 50 mg after the loading dose, and vancomycin 1 x 1 g/48 hours from the third day of treatment. The patient died on the ninth day after developing candidemia. The present case is the first case of fungemia caused by C.auris in a COVID-19 positive patient in Turkey, and it emphasizes the need of caution for fungemia due to C.auris in intensive care units in our country which has a high COVID-19 incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , Fungemia , Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(6): e13740, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has high mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), and vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is vital for this population. Although the humoral response to messenger RNA vaccines was shown to be impaired in KTR, there is a lack of data regarding the antibody response to inactivated vaccines. We investigated the antibody response to two consequent doses of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac; Sinovac Biotech, China). METHODS: A total of 118 patients from two centers were included. The levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin-G antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike antigens were determined with enzyme immunoassay (DIA.PRO; Milano, Italy) before the vaccine and one month after the second dose of the vaccine. Thirty-three patients were excluded due to antibody positivity in the serum samples obtained before vaccination. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients, 47 of whom were female, with a mean age of 46 ± 12, were included in the statistical analysis. The maintenance immunosuppressive therapy comprised tacrolimus (88.2%), mycophenolate (63.6%), and low-dose steroids (95.3%) in the majority of the patients. After a median of 31 days following the second dose of the vaccine, only 16 (18.8%) patients developed an antibody response. The median (IQR) antibody level was 52.5 IU/ml (21.5-96). Age (48 vs. 38, p = .005) and serum creatinine levels (1.14 vs. 0.91, p = .04) were higher in non-responders and were also found to be independently associated with the antibody response (odds ratio (OR): 0.93, p = 0.012 and 0.15, p = 0.045, respectively) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found the antibody response to the inactivated vaccine to be considerably low (18.8%) in KTR. Increased age and impaired renal function were associated with worse antibody response. Based on the knowledge that mRNA vaccines yield better humoral responses, this special population might be considered for additional doses of mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Inactivated , mRNA Vaccines
9.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Serum D-dimer levels, as well as other biomarkers related to coagulation, are significantly elevated during severe community acquired pneumonia. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of plasma D-dimer levels determining the severity of inflammation and prognosis in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We retrospectively chart reviewed medical records of pediatric patients (< 18 years of age) admitted to Istanbul Fcaulty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease Service between March 11, and June 30, 2020. We collected demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiographic data. RESULTS: A hundred and seventy-one pediatric patients (1 - 216 months of age) admitted to pediatric infecitous disease service included in this study. Patients were classified into 4 categories; 1) COVID-19 infection confirmed by PCR, 2) Suspected COVID-19 infection due to close exposure history and radiographic findings, 3) Lower respiratory tract infection other than COVID-19 confirmed with multiplex respiratory viral panel, and 4) Systemic infections other than lower respiratory tract infection. Lymphopenia was observed significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 infection compared to patients with other respiratory viral infections (p=0.06). In patients with radiographic findings concerning for COVID-19 infection, elevated serum D-dimer levels were detected significantly higher than lymphopenia (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum D-dimer levels at baseline are associated with inflammation especially in patients with COVID-19 infection with radipgraphic findings. Monitoring serum D-dimer levels may be used for early identification of severe cases in children.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 756-762, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disease severity, previous medications and immunosuppressive agents could affect the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to analyze variables affecting the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included adult patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were admitted to a COVID-19 follow-up unit. Eight patient groups were defined in accordance with the results of thoracic computed tomography (CT), SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, and tocilizumab or anakinra use during active disease. Anti-S IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA in serum samples. Anti-S positive and negative cases were compared. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were positive in 82.8% of patients. SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity, extent of lung involvement on CT, and time to antibody testing were independently associated with antibody positivity. Tocilizumab, anakinra or prednisolone use was not a factor affecting the antibody response. The rate of antibody response and sample/CO values among antibody-positive patients showed a linear relationship with the extent of lung involvement on CT. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tocilizumab, anakinra and prednisolone for COVID-19 did not affect the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. The main driver of antibody response among patients with COVID-19 was the extent of pulmonary involvement on CT.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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