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1.
Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics ; 12(1):514-520, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145187

ABSTRACT

Machine learning algorithms immediately became critical in the battle against the COVID-19 outbreak. Diagnoses, medicine research, an illness spread predictions, and population surveillance all required the use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods as the epidemic grew in scope. To combat COVID-19, screening procedures that are both effective and rapid are required. At COVID-19, AI developers took a chance to show how AI can benefit all mankind. It was only after the employment of AI in the battle against COVID-19. AI's various and diverse applications in the epidemic are documented in this study. It is the purpose of this study to help shape the future development and usage of these technologies, whether in the present or future health crises. © 2023, Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.

2.
3rd International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Data Mining and Information Security, IEMIS 2022 ; 491:673-685, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2094556

ABSTRACT

The recent times have seen the global rise in infection rates from the virus Covid-19, leading to a pandemic. The exponential rise in infections and deaths lead to panic and nation-wide lockdowns across the globe. Advancements in biotechnical and medical research have paved the way for the development and mass distribution of vaccines. To build an understanding of the current situation we did a comparative analysis of the rise in infection rates among citizens across the countries and also the growth in vaccinations in the pre-vaccination phase and the post-vaccination phase of the on-going pandemic to determine whether the rate of vaccination is more than the rate of infection or otherwise. Then, a comparison is done among two prediction models we built, one using polynomial regression and other using SVM to determine which model provides better prediction results of infection rates in a country. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

3.
International Journal of Health Sciences ; 6:11150-11160, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989166

ABSTRACT

Background: People's mental health has been impacted by the novel corona virus COVID 19. According to studies, a significant percentage of people who have recovered from the infection have mental health problems. The research was carried out on people who had recovered from COVID 19 in the previous year. Participants were contacted a month after being discharged from the hospital and encouraged to complete a questionnaire that included the DASS and IES scales. Anxiety, depression, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder were all examined in the results (PTSD). Those with scores that indicated severe levels were encouraged to see a psychiatrist for proper treatment and therapy. The results of the DASS revealed that 2.5 percent of the participants had scores indicative of severe stress, 25.3 percent had scores indicative of severe anxiety, and 7.3 percent had scores indicative of severe depression. According to the results of the IES, 15.1 percent of the participants said the event had a significant impact on their mental health, and 17.2 percent of the participants had scores that indicated the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. There is a strong link between IES scores and the severity of lung involvement. Conclusion: People who have recovered from COVID 19 are at risk for anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). © 2022 Universidad Tecnica de Manabi. All Rights Reserved.

4.
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817311

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 has been reported in most countries around the world since its origins in Wuhan, China. As of September 2021, there have been over 229 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 4.7 million COVID-19–associated deaths. Body: The devastating second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India has seen a rise in various extrapulmonary manifestations. One of key components in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is downregulation of ACE-2, which is expressed on many organs and counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effects of ACE/angiotensin-II axis. This leads to influx of inflammatory cells into alveoli, increased vascular permeability and activation of prothrombotic mediators. Imaging findings such as ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, vascular dilatation and pulmonary thrombosis correlate well with the pathogenesis. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the systemic complications of COVID-19 are caused by either direct viral invasion or effect of cytokine storm leading to inflammation and thrombosis or a combination of both. Gaining insights into pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 will help understanding the various multisystemic manifestations of COVID-19. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the pathophysiology of COVID-19 along with its various multisystemic imaging manifestations.

5.
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine ; 22(3-4):147-150, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1576798

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is being recognised as a syndrome related to COVD-19 infection – more commonly in children, but occasionally in adults also. A 28-year-old male with no co-morbidities presented with fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, chest and shoulder pains, and redness of eyes. He developed these symptoms 14 days post-COVID-19 vaccination. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in September 2020. After excluding other causes for his clinical features, the diagnosis of MIS-A was made and IV immunoglobulin along with methylprednisolone was given. Patient responded to the therapy and remained symptom free on regular follow-up for 3 months. We suggest that in a patient who presents with fever post-COVID-19 and/or post-immunisation with COVID-19 vaccination, the possibility of MIS-A should also be considered.

6.
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine ; 22(1-2):41-46, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1441608

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the COVID-19 global pandemic emerged, the worldwide medical fraternity has been facing multiple challenges regarding its management. Patients with severe/critical illness have a poor prognosis. Hence, early detection and assessment of disease severity is vital to offer timely management. Recent studies indicate that altered haematological parameters may predict the disease severity and mortality. We aimed to investigate associations between haematological parameters and disease severity in patients with SARS CoV 2 infection. Objectives: This study was undertaken to find out the optimal cut-off values of haematological parameters that may significantly relate to the clinical severity of COVID-19 and to evaluate their utility as parameters to predict mortality. Methods: It was a hospital based prospective cohort study, conducted over a period of 4 months, fromMay, 2020 to August, 2020 at a level 3 designated COVID-19 facility in Uttar Pradesh. In our cohort, there were a total of 211 patients out of which 125 were non-ICU admissions and 86 were ICU admissions. Cases were classified as severe, moderate andmild based on their oxygen requirements and ICU care needs. Results: The mean age of non-ICU patients was 47.1 ± 16.2 years, ICU survivors, were aged 57.4 ± 11.4, and ICU non-survivors were aged 57.3 ± 15.2. There was no mortality in the non-ICU group. Of the 86 ICU admissions, 69 were male, of which 27 were non-survivors and 17 were female, of whom 5 were non-survivors. Amongst the deceased patients, there was a significant leucocytosis (P < 0.001), neutrophilia (P < 0.001) and increased NLR (P = 0.026). The pooled analysis revealed that the NLR cut-off of > 3.85 was associated with severity and prediction for ICU admission, while NLR of > 5.2857 was associated with mortality. Conclusion: In conclusion, advanced age, male sex, a high white blood cell count, neutrophilic leucocytosis or neutrophilia along with the elevated NLR were significantly associated with both the clinical severity and mortality. © 2021, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(June):41-45, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1431556

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, SARS-COV-2 infection emerged in Wuhan, China causing COVID-19 and subsequently spread throughout the globe. A great uncertainty is associated with the disease progression, as the risk of severe COVID-19 is not uniform among all the patients. Systemic inflammation has been reported as a predictor for COVID-19 outcomes. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers are shown to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, cytokine storm and coagulopathy in COVID-19. There is a growing body of evidence, that these findings exert influence in the causation of mortality in patients with severe Covid-19. The present study is carried out with an aim to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients by interrelating their clinical severity with inflammatory markers and CT (Computed tomography) severity score (CTSS). Objectives: The aim of the study is to correlate COVID-19 severity with inflammatory markers and CT severity score. We also aim to determine the optimal cut-off values for inflammatory markers and CT severity scores in order to establish their interrelationship to the disease severity. Materials and Methods: It is a hospital-based retrospective observational study. The study was conducted over a period of four months (July 2020 to October 2020) based on data obtained from the records of patients, admitted with a laboratory confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection. The current study included a total of 84 patients, admitted to ICU with the severe COVID-19. Study tools included serum CRP, serum ferritin, D-dimer, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 25-point CT severity score obtained from HRCT (high resolution computerized tomography) chest.

8.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(7):11-12, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1431386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its first identification in December 2019, in WUHAN (CHINA), SARS-COV-2, causative agent of Corona virus pandemic, has affected millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of death. There is much speculation about the interplay between ACEI/ARB and Corona virus infection, as for internalization into host cell SARS-COV-2 binds through S spike protein to ACE-2, aided TMPRSS2. METHODS: A record based observational study has been conducted (data obtained from the clinics of fourteen physicians) in two worst affected districts of West Bengal, to find out the association of ACEI/ARB on patients, suffering from Corona virus infection. The study-protocol has already been approved by Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine. (IEC Ref. No: CREC-STM/2020-AS-37) Results: Increasing age, male sex and presence of co-morbidities (viz. Diabetes, COPD) are significantly associated with the occurrence of moderate and severe disease. Drugs (viz. ACEI/ARB), though are associated with less severe disease, have not achieved statistical significance, in the present study. CONCLUSION: Drugs, like ACEI/ARB, should be continued in patients suffering from COVID-19 infection, (if they are already on these drugs). © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

9.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(1):78-79, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296461

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a pandemic affecting mainly respiratory and gastrointestinal system. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) binds angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) resulting in hypokalaemia. We hereby report the a of hypokalaemic paralysis induced by COVID-19. Case: A 56 years old male with no co-morbidities presented with fever (2days), weakness in bilateral lower limbs (1 day). His had severe hypokalaemia with serum potassium of 2.05 mEq/L. RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV- 19 was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of hypokalaemic paralysis induced by COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: We suggest that during this pandemic era if a COVID-19 patient presents with paralysis, hypokalaemia induced paralysis should be kept in the differential diagnosis. What is known: COVID-19 infection leads to hypokalemia. What is new: Hypokalaemic paralysis as a manifestation of COVID-19.

10.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 115:S1431-S1431, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1070084
11.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-814256

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the change in the ongoing immunomodulatory (IMT) and biological therapies among patients with non-infectious uveitis (NIU), and determine the number of uveitis relapses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this national multicentric prospective case series, data of subjects with NIU receiving corticosteroids, systemic IMT and/or biological agents were analysed. The data collection was performed from 1 March 2020 to 25 June 2020. Main outcome measures included change in the ongoing treatments with corticosteroids, IMT and biological agents, use of alternate therapies and rates of uveitis relapse. RESULTS: In this study, 176 patients (284 eyes) with NIU (mean age: 33±17.1 years;males: 68) were included. A total of 121 eyes (90 patients) were deemed to have active NIU. Of these, seven subjects (7.8%) did not receive intravenous methylprednisolone despite need felt by the treating uveitis experts. In addition, 35 subjects (57.4%) received a rapid tapering dosage of oral corticosteroids despite active disease. A total of 161 (91.5%) subjects were receiving systemic IMT and 25 (14.2%) were on biological therapies. Overall, IMT was altered in 29/161 (18.0%) subjects. Twenty-two eyes were treated with intravitreal therapies in the study period. Fifty-three eyes (32.5%, 29 subjects) developed relapse of NIU, of which 25 subjects (86.2%) were deemed to have reactivation related to altered systemic IMT. No patient developed COVID-19 during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, uveitis specialists may tend to reduce the ongoing systemic IMT, or prefer less aggressive treatment strategies for NIU. These subjects may be at high risk of relapse of uveitis.

12.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 68(8):73-75, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 2019) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is observed to cause liver dysfunction. We aimed to observe abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in COVID-19 patients admitted in our hospital. METHODS: It was a cross- sectional study involving 105 COVID-19 patients who were admitted in our Hospital from 03-04-2020 to 02-05-2020. The COVID-19 positivity was defined on basis of real-time PCR. Thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including Complete Blood Count, Renal function Tests, Liver Function Tests, Chest X-ray, ECG, etc. were done. RESULTS: The total number of male and female patients were 64 and 41. Out of total 105 patients, 62 i.e. 59.04% had abnormal LFTs at time of admission. Out of these 62 patients, 44(70.9%) were Male and 18(29.03%) were female. Only 5(4.76%) patients had abnormal LFTs on repeat testing. Median Age of patients was 33years. Average stay of patients with Abnormal LFTs was 15 days (10-16 days) as compared to 10 days (7-11days) for patients with normal LFTs. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Abnormal Liver function tests in patients of COVID-19 is 59.04%. Abnormal liver functions were more in males. The average stay in hospital for COVID-19 patients with abnormal LFTs was longer than those with normal LFTs.

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