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1.
Journal of Stroke Medicine ; 5(1):48-55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1910250

ABSTRACT

Background and objective Amongst the varied neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection, stroke is one of the common complications. A large portion of patients had large vessel occlusion (LVO) which increases the risk of malignant cerebral infarction requiring decompressive craniectomy. The impact of COVID-19, however, on decompressive craniectomy is not well described. Through this study, we aim to study the impact of decompressive craniectomy in COVID-19 patients presented to our tertiary care hospital. Material and methods Data of all acute ischemic stroke patients who tested COVID positive during the study period was collected. From among them, patients requiring decompressive craniectomy were included. The demographic, clinico-radiological parameters related to stroke, treatment received, outcome and complications were noted. In addition, data from all case reports and case series published on patients with COVID-19, who had developed ischemic stroke and underwent decompression craniectomy was collected and systematically reviewed. Results Twenty-seven stroke patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection, out of whom five patients underwent decompression hemicraniectomy in view of neurologic deterioration. The review of literature yielded 453 s. After reading the full text of 69 articles, 12 studies on 15 patients finally met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. The mortality rate was 40% among stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy in COVID-19 patients. The mortality rate and functional outcomes of this cohort are comparable to the pre-pandemic period. Conclusion Decompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure in COVID-19 patients with malignant infarctions similar to patients in the pre-COVID-19 era.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911472

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India faced a rapid and sudden surge of not only COVID19-delta variant cases but also mucormycosis, making the infection even more fatal. We conducted a study to determine factors associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: This case-control study comprised 121 patients; 61 cases (mucormycosis with COVID-19) and 60 controls. Patients were included from April 10, 2021 onwards. Follow-up was conducted after about 90 days and health status was recorded based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). (3) Results: Mucormycosis with COVID-19 cases had a median (IQR) age of 49 (43-59) years with 65.6% males and were older (95% CI 1.015-1.075; p = 0.002) than in the control group with median (IQR) 38 (29-55.5) years and 66.6% males. Baseline raised serum creatinine (OR = 4.963; 95% CI 1.456-16.911; p = 0.010) and D-dimer (OR = 1.000; 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p = 0.028) were independently associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, diabetes mellitus (OR = 26.919; 95% CI 1.666-434.892; p = 0.020) was associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality in patients with mucormycosis with COVID-19 as per the multivariable analysis. A total of 30/61 mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement. (4) Conclusions: The study observed elevated levels of baseline raised creatinine and D-dimer in mucormycosis pa-tients with COVID-19 as compared to the control group. However, future studies may be conducted to establish this cause-effect relationship.

3.
Telemed Rep ; 2(1): 88-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901063

ABSTRACT

Background: Teleneurology consultations can be highly advantageous since neurological diseases and disabilities often limit patient's access to health care, particularly in a setting where they need to travel long distances for specialty consults. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome assessing success of a telemedicine program. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine satisfaction and perception of patients toward an audio call based teleneurology follow-up initiated during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Primary outcomes were satisfaction to tele-consult, and proportion of patients preferring telemedicine for future follow-up. Results: A total of 261 patients who received tele-consult were enrolled. Satisfaction was highest for domain technological quality, followed by patient-physician dialogue (PPD) and least to quality of care (QoC). Median (interquartile range) patient satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale was 4 (3-5). Eighty-five (32.6%; 95% confidence interval 26.9-38.6%) patients preferred telemedicine for future follow-up. Higher overall satisfaction was associated with health condition being stable/better, change in treatment advised on tele-consult, diagnosis not requiring follow-up examination, higher scores on domains QoC and PPD (p < 0.05). Future preference for telemedicine was associated with patient him-/herself consulting with doctor, less duration of follow-up, higher overall satisfaction, and higher scores on domain QoC (p < 0.05). On thematic analysis, telemedicine was found convenient, reduced expenditure, and had better physician attention; in-person visits were comprehensive, had better patient-physician relationship, and better communication. Discussion: Patient satisfaction was lower in our study than what has been observed earlier, which may be explained by the primitive nature of our platform. Several variables related to the patients' disease process have an effect on patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Development of robust, structured platforms is necessary to fully utilize the potential of telemedicine in developing countries.

4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(2): 218-223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879551

ABSTRACT

Objective: Neurological emergencies saw a paradigm shift in approach during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with the challenge to manage patients with and without COVID-19. We aimed to compare the various neurological disorders and 3 months outcome in patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: In an ambispective cohort study design, we enrolled patients with and without SARS CoV-2 infection coming to a medical emergency with neurological disorders between April 2020 and September 2020. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and treatment details of these patients were collected and compared. Their outcomes, both in-hospital and at 3 months were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Two thirty-five patients (235) were enrolled from emergency services with neurological disorders. Of them, 81 (34.5%) were COVID-19 positive. The mean (SD) age was 49.5 (17.3) years, and the majority of the patients were male (63.0%). The commonest neurological diagnosis was acute ischemic stroke (AIS) (43.0%). The in-hospital mortality was higher in the patients who were COVID-19 positive (COVID-19 positive: 29 (35.8%) versus COVID-19 negative: 12 (7.8%), P value: <0.001). The 3 months telephonic follow-up could be completed in 73.2% of the patients (142/194). Four (12.1%) deaths occurred on follow-up in the COVID-19 positive versus fifteen (13.8%) in the COVID-19 negative patients (P value: 1.00). The 3-month mRS was worse in the COVID-19 positive group (P value <0.001). However, this was driven by higher in-hospital morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: Patients with neurological disorders presenting with COVID-19 infection had worse outcomes, including in-hospital and 3 months disability.

5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Virion/immunology
6.
Journal of Stroke Medicine ; : 25166085221085780, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1794036

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 are at risk of thrombotic complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The incidence of strokes following COVID-19 is reported to be around 1.2%. There has been increased incidence with COVID-19 of large vessel strokes, especially in young patients without any known vascular risk factors. We reported four patients with severe COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome where stroke was diagnosed following neuroimaging. All the patients were on ventilatory assistance and supportive treatment when stroke was diagnosed. They had received sedation and paralytics during mechanical ventilation. Poor response to stimulation and nonresponsiveness after wearing off sedation prompted neuroimaging in these patients, which revealed stroke. Incidentally, all these patients had hypernatremia when stroke was diagnosed. This case series suggests that stroke should be considered a possible cause in all COVID-19 patients presenting with abnormal or altered sensorium.

7.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 76-81, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726289

ABSTRACT

Background: Governments have imposed lockdowns in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals have restricted outpatient clinics and elective services meant for non-COVID illnesses. This has led to patients facing unprecedented challenges and uncertainties. This study was carried out to assess patients' concerns and apprehensions about the effect of the lockdown on their treatments. Materials and Methods: An ambispective, observational cross-sectional single centre study was conducted. Patients were contacted telephonically and requested to answer a structured questionnaire. Their responses were documented and summarized as frequency and proportions. Results: A total of 727 patients were interviewed. Epilepsy (32%) was the most common neurological illness in our cohort followed by stroke (18%). About half the patients and/or their caregivers reported health-related concerns during the lockdown. The primary concern was how to connect with their treating neurologist if need arose. Forty-seven patients (6.4%) had drug default. Among patients on immunomodulatory treatments, only eight patients had drug default. High compliance rates were also observed in the stroke and epilepsy cohorts. Of the 71 patients who required emergency care during the lockdown, 24 could reach our hospital emergency. Fourteen patients either had a delay or could not seek emergency care. Two-thirds of our patients found the telemedicine experience satisfactory. Conclusion: The ongoing pandemic will continue to pose challenges to both physicians and patients. Patients in follow-up may need to be contacted regularly and counselled regarding the importance of maintaining drug compliance. Telemedicine can be used to strengthen the healthcare delivery to patients with non-COVID illnesses.

8.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

9.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(5): 668-685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occurrence of stroke has been reported among patients with COVID-19. The present study compares clinical features and outcomes of stroke patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: The COVID-19 Stroke Study Group (CSSG) is a multicentric study in 18 sites across India to observe and compare the clinical characteristics of patients with stroke admitted during the current pandemic period and a similar epoch in 2019. The present study reports patients of stroke with and without COVID-19 (CoVS and non-CoVS, respectively) seen between February 2020 and July 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome details of patients were collected. RESULTS: The mean age and gender were comparable between the two groups. CoVS patients had higher stroke severity and extent of cerebral involvement on imaging. In-hospital complications and death were higher among CoVS patients (53.06% vs. 17.51%; P < 0.001) and (42.31% vs. 7.6%; P < 0.001), respectively. At 3 months, higher mortality was observed among CoVS patients (67.65% vs. 13.43%; P < 0.001) and good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS]: 0-2) was seen more often in non-CoVS patients (68.86% vs. 33.33%; P < 0.001). The presence of COVID-19 and baseline stroke severity were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CoVS is associated with higher severity, poor outcome, and increased mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and baseline stroke severity are independent predictors of mortality.

10.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2269-e2281, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One year after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to summarize the frequency of neurologic manifestations reported in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the association of these manifestations with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMBASE for studies from December 31, 2019, to December 15, 2020, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 presenting with neurologic manifestations. Risk of bias was examined with the Joanna Briggs Institute scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for neurologic manifestations. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to determine the association of neurologic manifestations with disease severity and mortality. Presence of heterogeneity was assessed with I 2, meta-regression, and subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses were conducted in R version 3.6.2. RESULTS: Of 2,455 citations, 350 studies were included in this review, providing data on 145,721 patients with COVID-19, 89% of whom were hospitalized. Forty-one neurologic manifestations (24 symptoms and 17 diagnoses) were identified. Pooled prevalence of the most common neurologic symptoms included fatigue (32%), myalgia (20%), taste impairment (21%), smell impairment (19%), and headache (13%). A low risk of bias was observed in 85% of studies; studies with higher risk of bias yielded higher prevalence estimates. Stroke was the most common neurologic diagnosis (pooled prevalence 2%). In patients with COVID-19 ≥60 years of age, the pooled prevalence of acute confusion/delirium was 34%, and the presence of any neurologic manifestations in this age group was associated with mortality (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.91). DISCUSSION: Up to one-third of patients with COVID-19 analyzed in this review experienced at least 1 neurologic manifestation. One in 50 patients experienced stroke. In those >60 years of age, more than one-third had acute confusion/delirium; the presence of neurologic manifestations in this group was associated with nearly a doubling of mortality. Results must be interpreted with the limitations of observational studies and associated bias in mind. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020181867.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/complications , Delirium/mortality , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications
12.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(3): 261-264, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent respiratory infection including SARS-CoV-2 is an independent risk factor for acute cerebrovascular disease. PURPOSE: There have been reports linking haemorrhagic strokes to SARS-CoV-2 infection during this pandemic, which lead us to evaluate if SARS-CoV-2 infection could be associated with increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A retrospective observational study evaluating all stroke cases admitted in our centre in the past one month. RESULTS: More than half (56%) had ICH, compared to 22% last year. Two patients with ICH were SARS-CoV-2 positive and they had no or mild respiratory symptoms and had higher occurrence of renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION: There could be possible association between ICH and SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, a prospective study with larger sample size is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.

13.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117583, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health systems around the world struggled to meet the challenges of COVID-19 pandemic, care of many non-COVID emergencies was affected. AIMS: The present study examined differences in the diagnosis, evaluation and management of stroke patients during a defined period in the ongoing pandemic in 2020 when compared to a similar epoch in year 2019. METHODS: The COVID stroke study group (CSSG) India, included 18 stroke centres spread across the country. Data was collected prospectively between February and July 2020 and retrospectively for the same period in 2019. Details of demographics, stroke evaluation, treatment, in-hospital and three months outcomes were collected and compared between these two time points. RESULTS: A total of 2549 patients were seen in both study periods; 1237 patients (48.53%) in 2019 and 1312 (51.47%) in 2020. Although the overall number of stroke patients and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, a significant decline was observed in the month of April 2020, during the initial period of the pandemic and lockdown. Endovascular treatment reduced significantly and longer door to needle and CT to needle times were observed in 2020. Although mortality was higher in 2020, proportion of patients with good outcome were similar in both the study periods. CONCLUSIONS: Although stroke admissions and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, some work flow metrics were delayed, endovascular stroke treatment rates declined and mortality was higher during the pandemic study period. Reorganization of stroke treatment pathways during the pandemic has likely improved the stroke care delivery across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 200-211, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has affected thousands of health care workers worldwide. Suboptimal infection control practices have been identified as important risk factors. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to holistically assess the preventive practices of health care workers related to COVID-19 and identify the reasons for shortcomings therein. METHODS: The development of the questionnaire involved item generation through literature review, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health care workers and experts, followed by validation through expert opinion, pilot testing and survey. A cross-sectional survey on 147 healthcare workers was done using an online platform and/or interviews in August 2020 in New Delhi, India. Exploratory factor analysis using principal component extraction with varimax rotation was performed to establish construct validity. Internal consistency of the tool was tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: The developed questionnaire consists of two sections: Section A contains 29 items rated on a five-point Likert scale to assess preventive practices and Section B contains 27 semi-structured items to assess reasons for suboptimal practices. The first section has good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) CONCLUSIONS: This questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for holistic assessment of preventive practices and barriers to it among health care workers. It will be useful to identify vulnerable practices and sections in health care settings which would assist policymakers in designing appropriate interventions for infection prevention and control. This will also be useful in future pandemics of similar nature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Young Adult
15.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(1): 11-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150828

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a global health crisis. Non-COVID diseases across specialties have been significantly compromised. The greatest challenge has been to continue providing care to non-COVID cases with minimum transmission risk to health care workers, patients, and caregivers. In this specter, better described as a medical holocaust, we present our experiences of dealing with acute neurological patients who could access our facility. We attempted to work on three key areas - initial screening using a more inclusive, dynamic checklist for COVID suspicion over and above the emergency triage, a mandatory initial holding on a separate floor of our inpatient service equipped with infection control strategies similar to a COVID-designated area, and daily screening of health care workers and caregivers for symptoms and possible exposures. It was a steep learning curve, a couple of close shaves, and many more lessons that went into the development of an algorithm that seems to be working well.

16.
Prev Med Rep ; 22: 101339, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096201

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide with far-reaching socio-economic implications in society. The adoption of preventive practices by the public remains the mainstay in reducing the spread of COVID-19 but there is a dearth of validated tools to assess such infection prevention practices related to pandemics. This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of preventive practices against COVID-19 in the general population. It was done following a standardized protocol involving questionnaire development through literature review, focused group discussions, in-depth interviews, expert opinion, and pre-testing. This was followed by the validation of the questionnaire through a cross-sectional survey on 108 individuals from diverse backgrounds in New Delhi, India in July 2020. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The developed questionnaire for assessing preventive practices consists of two sections: the first section of 18 items to evaluate preventive practices and the second section of 19 items for assessing various reasons for deficiencies in the preventive practices. The first section has good content validity (CVR = 0.81 and S-CVI/Av = 0.97) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.82). Thus, this questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the comprehensive assessment of preventive practices and barriers related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It will be useful in assessing the preparedness of the public and will be helpful to policymakers in designing appropriate interventions for protection against COVID-19.

17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of getting infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and suboptimal preventive practices have been identified as an important risk factor in this regard. This study was done to evaluate the preventive practices being followed by health care workers and identify reasons for suboptimal compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done in HCWs belonging to various occupational roles and socio-cultural backgrounds across India through online platforms and telephonic interviews from July 30, 2020 to August 30, 2020. A scientifically designed and pre-validated questionnaire with good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) was used. RESULTS: The responses of 956 participants were analysed. Various suboptimal practices like touching outer surface of masks, lack of social distancing in cafeteria and duty rooms, inability to wash hands for adequate duration and properly follow steps of hand hygiene, inability to don and doff PPE properly, carrying PPE to duty rooms before completely doffing, use of personal mobile phones during duty and improper sleep were identified. Lack of knowledge, long duty hours, shortage of PPE, high patient workload, and casual attitude regarding own safety were identified as important barriers. Resident doctors and paramedical staff in the age group 18-30 years reported lower adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal compliance in preventive practices like handling PPE, distancing in cafeteria/duty rooms and hand hygiene is not uncommon in HCWs. Certain barriers are identified which should be addressed to ensure adequate safety of HCWs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Physical Distancing , Young Adult
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