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2.
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; 17:1-8, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006272

ABSTRACT

The need for an antiviral against COVID-19 prompted clinical trials worldwide and based on initial promising trends, remdesivir was widely used, including in India (compassionate use). Subsequent trials have been conflicting in their results and the utility of the drug has been widely debated. This is a record-based retrospective cohort study in a 1000-bedded government teaching hospital in North India. We reviewed the medical e-records of the COVID-19 positive patients admitted between June and November 2020. After assessing eligibility and making the necessary exclusions, 112 patients were retrospectively included in the remdesivir cohort and 85 in the standard care cohort. All the baseline characteristics of relevance and hospital admission details were collected. The following outcomes were assessed: All-cause mortality until discharge-stratified as per baseline oxygen support, age, gender, and co-morbidities;the proportion of severe and non-severe patients progressing to mechanical ventilation later on;and time to clinical recovery in survivors. We found a statistically significant association of higher mortality with the administration of remdesivir (odds ratio, OR 2.3, p-value 0.008) with a Cox regression hazard ratio of 1.590 (CI 0.944-2.679). The trend towards poorer outcomes in the remdesivir cohort persisted even after sub-stratification for age, gender, baseline severity (oxygen need), and co-morbidities but failed to reach statistical significance in most strata. Similarly, remdesivir administration was associated with higher rates of progression to mechanical ventilation amongst those severe and non-severe patients who were not on mechanical ventilation at admission (49% versus 15%, p-value <0.001, OR 5.2). This association was significant overall as well as for severe category patients when assessed separately (56% versus 26%, p-value 0.04, OR 3.1). There was, however, no difference in the days taken for clinical recovery between the two groups (13.23 days versus 12.8 days, p-value 0.77). Remdesivir administration was associated with overall worse clinical outcomes. This study contradicts the benefits shown with remdesivir in previous clinical trials done in controlled settings and highlights the challenges that newer therapies face in real-life hospital settings. There is a need to include diverse ethnic groups in the future clinical trials of the drug if to be used.

3.
5th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks, ISCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759098

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 outbreak has appeared to be a threat to mankind for all the countries, especially India. The first wave of this virus arrived in the country in 2020, and due to various control measures taken by the government, the situation was somewhat controllable. Unfortunately, the second wave has brought enormous trouble to the citizens, and even the measures couldn't possibly stop the mess. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the second wave of corona virus spread in India, along with visualized information about vaccination undertaken by the citizens. The datasets over which the study has been performed are taken from 16 January 2021 to 2nd May 2021. © 2021 IEEE.

4.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ; 509(2):1929-1939, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1584216

ABSTRACT

We conducted a drift-scan observation campaign using the 305-m Arecibo telescope in 2020 January and March when the observatory was temporarily closed during the intense earthquakes and the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The primary objective of the survey was to search for fast radio transients, including fast radio bursts (FRBs) and rotating radio transients (RRATs). We used the seven-beam ALFA receiver to observe different sections of the sky within the declination region similar to(10 degrees-20 degrees) on 23 nights and collected 160 h of data in total. We searched our data for single-pulse transients, of covering up to a maximum dispersion measure of 11 000 pc cm(-3) at which the dispersion delay across the entire bandwidth is equal to the 13-s transit length of our observations. The analysis produced more than 18 million candidates. Machine learning techniques sorted the radio frequency interference and possibly astrophysical candidates, allowing us to visually inspect and confirm the candidate transients. We found no evidence for new astrophysical transients in our data. We also searched for emission from repeated transient signals, but found no evidence for such sources. We detected single pulses from two known pulsars in our observations and their measured flux densities are consistent with the expected values. Based on our observations and sensitivity, we estimated the upper limit for the FRB rate to be <2.8 x 10(5) sky(-1) d(-1) above a fluence of 0.16 Jy ms at 1.4 GHz, which is consistent with the rates from other telescopes and surveys.

5.
Journal of Endourology ; 35(SUPPL 1):A46-A47, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1569543

ABSTRACT

Introduction & Objective: In March 2020, hospitals across America locked down to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This resulted in catastrophic financial losses and massive surgical backlog. While multiple groups have shown that ambulatory percutaneous nephrolithotomy (aPCNL) is safe and feasible, to our knowledge, a cost-analysis comparing aPCNL against standard PCNL (sPCNL) has not been performed. Prior to March 2020, our group was not performing routine aPCNL, but to conserve hospital resources, we performed aPCNL more often. Our objective was to compare the safety and cost-effectiveness of sPCNL vs. aPCNL. Methods: 98 patients underwent PCNL at Indiana University Methodist hospital, a tertiary referral center, by three expert surgeons from January 2020 to September 2020. sPCNL (n = 75) and aPCNL (n = 23). All patients had at least 30-days of follow up. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the 30-day rates of ED-visits, readmissions, and complications between sPCNL and aPCNL. Secondary outcomes included: cost analysis and stone free rates (SFRs). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSSv26 using independent t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square analyses for categorical variables. Results: We found no difference in 30-day ED-visits, readmissions, or complications between the two groups. aPCNL resulted in cost savings of $5689 ± 237 per case, a 29.6% reduction. Conclusions: aPCNL appears safe to perform and does not have a higher rate of ED-visits or readmissions compare to sPCNL. aPCNL also is also costeffective compared to sPCNL. Patients undergoing same-day discharge were not at higher risk of EDvisits or readmission to the hospital. (Table Presented).

6.
Journal of Endourology ; 35(SUPPL 1):A5, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1569531

ABSTRACT

Introduction & Objective: During the unprecedented COVID- 19 pandemic, there have been major changes in healthcare delivery, patients seeking care and access to care. We sought to determine if there were differences in Emergency Department (ED) presentations for urolithiasis and their triage from the ED. Methods: We assessed the all ED presentations and those for urolithiasis (defined as codes N20.0 and N20.1) from January 2019 through December 2020 at four hospitals (one primary, two secondary and one tertiary/quaternary care) in a single hospital network in the Indianapolis metro area. We also assessed the patient's disposition, either discharged from the ED or admitted to the hospital. Results: There were 109,656 total ED presentations in 2019 and 1369 ED presentations for urolithiasis (12.5%). In 2020, there were 94143 total ED presentations with 1212 for urolithiasis (12.9%). There was no significant difference between total stone presentation between the 2019 and 2020. In 2020, there were significant increases in the rate of stone presentations in May (1.39% vs 0.010%, p = 0.02) and August (1.64% vs 1.13%, p = 0.0035). There was a significant decrease in the rate of stone presentation in December 2020 compared to December 2019 (0.91% vs 1.34%, p = 0.0096). Figure 1 demonstrates the monthly ED Visits for urolithiasis compared between 2019 and 2020, with the monthly COVID-19 cases in Indiana. There was a decline in total visits 71.5% of visits were dismissed from the ED in 2019 compared to 70.2% in 2020. There were no differences in the rates of ED discharge or hospital admission on a monthly basis between 2019 and 2020. Conclusions: Within a hospital system in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, there does not appear to be a change in ED stone presentations or disposition patterns between 2019 and 2020 despite the COVID-19 pandemic. (Table Presented).

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292023

ABSTRACT

We conducted a drift-scan observation campaign using the 305-m Arecibo telescope in January and March 2020 when the observatory was temporarily closed during the intense earthquakes and the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The primary objective of the survey was to search for fast radio transients, including Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) and Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs). We used the 7-beam ALFA receiver to observe different sections of the sky within the declination region $\sim$(10$-$20) deg on 23 nights and collected 160 hours of data in total. We searched our data for single-pulse transients, covering up to a maximum dispersion measure of 11 000 pc cm$

8.
Journal of Urology ; 206(SUPPL 3):e88-e89, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1483586

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In March 2020, hospitals across America locked down to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This resulted in catastrophic financial losses and massive surgical backlog. While multiple groups have shown that ambulatory percutaneous nephrolithotomy (aPCNL) is safe and feasible, to our knowledge, a cost-analysis comparing aPCNL against standard PCNL (sPCNL) has not been performed. Prior to March 2020, our group was not performing routine aPCNL, but to conserve hospital resources, we performed aPCNL more often. Our objective was to compare the safety and cost-effectiveness of sPCNL vs. aPCNL. METHODS: 98 patients underwent PCNL at Indiana University Methodist hospital, a tertiary referral center, by three expert surgeons from January 2020 to September 2020. sPCNL (n=75) and aPCNL (n =23). All patients had at least 30-days of follow up.The primary outcome of the study was to compare the 30-day rates of ED-visits, readmissions, and complications between sPCNL and aPCNL. Secondary outcomes included: cost analysis and stone free rates (SFRs). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSSv26 using independent t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square analyses for categorical varaibles. RESULTS: We found no difference in 30-day ED-visits, readmissions, or complications between the two groups. aPCNL resulted in cost savings of $5689±237 per case, a 29.6% reduction. CONCLUSIONS: aPCNL appears safe to perform and does not have a higher rate of ED-visits or readmissions compare to sPCNL. aPCNL also is also cost-effective compared to sPCNL. Patients undergoing same-day discharge were not at higher risk of ED-visits or readmission to the hospital.

9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(8): 589-598, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379815

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Otolaryngology health personnel are at high risk of acquiring COVID-19 disease and, hence, are likely to have high stress levels. This study was designed to evaluate the feedback of otolaryngology healthcare workers in ENT departments who are managing patients in the coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire focused on all aspects of healthcare delivery was completed by otolaryngology healthcare workers. RESULTS: The findings, based on statistical analyses, included high stress levels and inadequate disease-related information in these workers. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare authorities need to take care of issues related to mental health in healthcare professionals in addition to spreading awareness about safe practices. Further studies are needed to continuously monitor feedback from personnel as the coronavirus pandemic unravels in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Health Personnel , Otolaryngology , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel, Hospital , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
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