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Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(12): 1349-1356, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561026


Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) continues to pose serious challenges to healthcare systems globally with the disease progressing over time in crest-trough pattern of waves. We compared the patient characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients admitted during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of medical records of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at the peak period of both waves. The data on demographics, symptoms, treatment received, and outcomes of patients were recorded. Results: Compared to first wave, significantly more females, younger age group, and those without underlying comorbidities required ICU admission during the second wave. The treatments received during both periods were similar except for preferential use of methylprednisolone over dexamethasone and proclivity of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation over high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). There was no significant difference in the duration of ICU stay and mortality of patients. During the first wave, the factors associated with nonsurvival of patients were advanced age, comorbidities, severe disease, and a lesser number of days on HFNC. All these factors along with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were observed to be linked with patient nonsurvival during the second wave. Conclusion: In India, the second wave of COVID-19 significantly influenced ICU demographics with a predominance of females and young adults requiring critical care. During both time periods, patients received similar treatment except for the propensity to use methylprednisolone and BiPAP as opposed to dexamethasone and HFNC in second wave. No significant difference in ICU mortality was noted. How to cite this article: Kerai S, Singh R, Dutta S, Mahajan A, Agarwal M. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Critically Ill Patients Admitted to Tertiary Care Intensive Care Units in India during the Peak Months of First and Second Waves of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Analysis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(12):1349-1356.

Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162


BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.

COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2