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Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231790


BACKGROUND: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucor mycosis (ROCM) is a relatively rare opportunistic infection caused by the Mucorales species. While ROCM suggests involvement of the paranasal sinuses, orbit and brain ROM (rhino-orbital-Mucormycosis) stands for the fungal invasion in sinuses and orbit sans cerebral involvement. In India with the outbreak of the second COVID wave and the delta variant of the virus, there has been a steep increase in this opportunistic fulminant fungal infection, named COVID-associated Mucor mycosis (CAM). The most critical question in orbital management is when to go ahead with an exenteration. Our study aims to design a pertinent minimal invasive surgical protocol for surgeons to manage such cases based on our surgical experience and mitigate the need for exenteration and save the eyes wherever possible. METHODS: The study is a retrospective analysis of patients of ROM with and without brain involvement, who underwent minimal surgical management between March 2021 to March 2022 along with their follow-up. RESULTS: There were 184 eyes of 148 patients diagnosed with CAM. The mean age was 51.7 years with a male predominance of 103 (70%). All patients developed ROM following the COVID-19 infection and the duration between diagnosis of COVID-19 and ROM was 36 ± 23 days. 18 cases (12%) were bilateral. 76 eyes (41%) had no vision at the presentation. Imaging revealed paranasal sinus involvement (100%), orbital apex involvement (61%), cavernous sinus involvement (53%), and central nervous system (CNS) involvement (47%). All the patients (100%) were treated with systemic Liposomal amphotericin-B and sinus debridement. Endoscopic debridement of the orbital disease was performed in 45 (30.4%) cases, 15(8.1%) eyes underwent exenteration and were later rehabilitated with a customized ocular prosthesis, 103 (56%) eyes underwent transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B. At a mean follow-up of 13.1 months; the complete resolution was seen in 25 (17%) cases, the residual stable lesion was seen in 77(52%) of the cases and new lesions were developed in 13(9%) of the cases. Mortality was seen in 33 (22%) patients and all of them had CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic and protocol-based management can save the life and salvage the eyes.

Ann Neurosci ; 28(1-2): 94-100, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223683


BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a neuroinvasive potential, which has been discussed in various research papers. During the current pandemic, the novel CoV, i.e., SARS-CoV-2, is causing a considerable number of fatalities and posing a great danger of a recurrent epidemic. COVID-19 has been labeled as a public health emergency of international concern, and the epidemic curves are on the rise. PURPOSE: Some studies discuss the neurological implications of SARS-CoV-2 but in light of growing number of evidences we cannot ignore the planning of mental health care settings in COVID-19. We are discussing how this novel CoV can affect the human brain directly and indirectly, including psychiatric problems, and how neurological conditions can be explored as a diagnostic tool in COVID-19 by analyzing cohort studies and review papers that discuss the recent neurological findings in COVID-19. METHOD: Current research and review papers were searched to find out any relation between the COVID-19 disease and the altered mental health. This study attempts to find out neurological symptoms in a large population affected by COVID-19 and thus filtering out individual case reports and cohort studies which have a patient pool of less than 50. RESULTS: This unique observation revealed that SARS-CoV-2 has direct neurological manifestations such as anosmia and gustatory impairment, encephalopathy, and seizures as well as an indirect effect on the psychiatric health such as anxiety, amnesia, etc. because of psychosocial stress. CONCLUSION: The most commonly reported neurological symptoms should not be ignored and must be tested for COVID-19. More neurological studies like medical imaging and neuropathology should be performed on these COVID-19 patients.