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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321343

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant surge of critically ill patients and an unprecedented demand on intensive care services. The rapidly evolving understanding of pathogenesis, limited disease specific evidence and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. COVID-19 is a complex multisystem inflammatory vasculopathy with a significant mortality implication for those admitted to intensive care. Institutional strategic preparation and meticulous intensive care support are essential to maximising outcomes during the pandemic. The significant mortality variation observed between institutions and internationally, despite a single aetiology and uniform presentation, highlights the potential influence of management strategies on outcome. Given that optimal organ support and adjunctive therapies for COVID-19 have not yet been well defined by trial-based outcomes, strategies are predicated on existing literature and experiential learning. This review outlines the relevant pathophysiology and management strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19, and shares some of the collective learning accumulated in a high volume Severe Respiratory Failure centre in London.

2.
Clin Infect Pract ; 12: 100089, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of antibodies in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) has yet to be characterised and clinical courses observed in this cohort of patients have been heterogeneous. Whilst some exhibit spontaneous recovery, others have experienced a more protracted disease length. Previous reports have described successful use of convalescent plasma, however there is a paucity of information around the use of the REGN-COV2 antibody cocktail in these patients. CASE REPORT: A patient with XLA was admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and remained persistently symptomatic with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) swab positivity despite treatment with Remdesivir and dexamethasone. Attempts at modulating the immune response with anakinra were unsuccessful. Consent for compassionate use of REGN-COV2 was obtained with administration taking place on day 87 of his illness. This was followed by a period of convalescence and SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab negativity. As a consequence of prolonged immunosuppression, the patient developed pneumocystis pneumonia. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the role of antibodies in clearing SARS-CoV-2 in a hypogammaglobulinaemic host and demonstrates the consequences of prolonged immunosuppression and delayed treatment. We propose that this may be of particular significance given the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to develop advantageous mutations in a chronically infected host.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been described, but reported utilisation and outcomes are variable, and detailed information on patient characteristics is lacking. We aim to report clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of COVID-19 patients requiring VV-ECMO, admitted over 2 months to a high-volume centre in the UK. METHODS: Patient information, including baseline characteristics and clinical parameters, was collected retrospectively from electronic health records for COVID-19 VV-ECMO admissions between 3 March and 2 May 2020. Clinical management is described. Data are reported for survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: We describe 43 consecutive patients with COVID-19 who received VV-ECMO. Median age was 46 years (interquartile range 35.5-52.5) and 76.7% were male. Median time from symptom onset to VV-ECMO was 14 days (interquartile range 11-17.5). All patients underwent computed tomography imaging, revealing extensive pulmonary consolidation in 95.3%, and pulmonary embolus in 27.9%. Overall, 79.1% received immunomodulation with methylprednisolone for persistent maladaptive hyperinflammatory state. Vasopressors were used in 86%, and 44.2% received renal replacement therapy. Median duration on VV-ECMO was 13 days (interquartile range 8-20). 14 patients died (32.6%) and 29 survived (67.4%) to hospital discharge. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher d-dimer (38.2 versus 9.5 mg·L-1, fibrinogen equivalent units; p=0.035) and creatinine (169 versus 73 µmol·L-1; p=0.022) at commencement of VV-ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the use of VV-ECMO in selected COVID-19 patients. The cohort was characterised by high degree of alveolar consolidation, systemic inflammation and intravascular thrombosis.

6.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(6): 912-925, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834247

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant surge of critically ill patients and an unprecedented demand on intensive care services. The rapidly evolving understanding of pathogenesis, limited disease specific evidence, and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. COVID-19 is a complex multisystem inflammatory vasculopathy with a significant mortality implication for those admitted to intensive care. Institutional strategic preparation and meticulous intensive care support are essential to maximising outcomes during the pandemic. The significant mortality variation observed between institutions and internationally, despite a single aetiology and uniform presentation, highlights the potential influence of management strategies on outcome. Given that optimal organ support and adjunctive therapies for COVID-19 have not yet been well defined by trial-based outcomes, strategies are predicated on existing literature and experiential learning. This review outlines the relevant pathophysiology and management strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19, and shares some of the collective learning accumulated in a high volume severe respiratory failure centre in London.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Disease Management , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
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