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1.
Radiology. Cardiothoracic imaging ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905140

ABSTRACT

By comparing phenotypic clinical characteristics and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) findings in 14 patients with COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to 14 patients with acute myocarditis from other causes, we found that patients with COVID-19 vaccination- associated acute myocarditis have higher left ventricular ejection fraction, higher left ventricular global circumferential and radial strain, and less involvement of late gadolinium enhancement in the septal segments with less involvement of midmyocardial pattern of late gadolinium enhancement, compared to patients with acute myocarditis from other causes.

2.
Mater Today Proc ; 56: 3790-3796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636617

ABSTRACT

Sustainability deals with the impact of various processes and products on the economy, environment, and society. Due to the outburst of deadly coronavirus disease (COVID-19), sustainability which has three dimensions i.e., economy, environment, and social have been severely afflicted. Logistics has been stopped due to the spread of COVID-19 by which disruption in supply and demand takes place. This paper involves the study of the impact of COVID-19 on sustainability enablers. Also, the sub-attributes of sustainability enablers are studied and the performance index is calculated for pre and during COVID-19 with the help of the Graph-theoretic approach (GTA). With the help of the graph-theoretic approach (GTA), the inter-relationship between the sustainability enablers pre and during COVID-19 has been studied thereby quantitatively measuring the extent to which COVID-19 has an impact on sustainability enablers. The objective of this study is to identify a performance index by analyzing different sub-attributes of sustainability enablers. Also, digraphs are shown for the whole system and sub-systems representing inter-relationships and dependencies between various enablers and attributes to interpret the performance of the sustainability enablers before and during the time of COVID-19. This paper provides the impacts of COVID-19 on these three factors and provides the framework how to identify the performance index pre and during COVID-19.

3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(12): 3633-3636, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the conjunctival swab sample of positive confirmed COVID-19 patients and to find out its association with comorbidity and severity of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study at a dedicated tertiary COVID-19 hospital in central India for a period of 8 weeks from February 2021to March 2021. We included patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA through nasopharyngeal swab and were above 18 years of age. Swab samples have been collected within 48 h of admission. Conjunctival swab was taken from the lower fornix of both eyes and sent to microbiology laboratory for real-time- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Out of 150 patients, conjunctival swab RT-PCR was positive in five patients (3.33%). Two patients had conjunctival manifestations in the form of conjunctivitis but conjunctival swab RT-PCR was negative in those patients. Among the RT-PCR positive patients, two (40%) were from mild, one (20%) was from moderate, and two (40%) were from severe category. No association could be established between conjunctival swab RT-PCR positivity and severity of the disease or associated comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in conjunctival secretions, and though the risk is relatively low, the eye may act as source of transmission. Extra caution should be taken by healthcare workers, and use of proper precautions like face shields and goggles should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Comorbidity , Conjunctiva , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 738983, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497100

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-infected patients are reported to show immunocompromised behavior that gives rise to a wide variety of complications due to impaired innate immune response, cytokine storm, and thrombo-inflammation. Prolonged use of steroids, diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are some of the factors responsible for the growth of Mucorales in such immunocompromised patients and, thus, can lead to a life-threatening condition referred to as mucormycosis. Therefore, an early diagnosis and cell-based management cosis is the need of the hour to help affected patients overcome this severe condition. In addition, extended exposure to antifungal drugs/therapeutics is found to initiate hormonal and neurological complications. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to exhibit immunomodulatory function and proven to be beneficial in a clinical cell-based regenerative approach. The immunomodulation ability of MSCs in mucormycosis patient boosts the immunity by the release of chemotactic proteins. MSC-based therapy in mucormycosis along with the combination of short-term antifungal drugs can be utilized as a prospective approach for mucormycosis treatment with promising outcomes. However, preclinical and in mucormyIn mucormycosis, the hyphae of clinical trials are needed to establish the precise mechanism of MSCs in mucormycosis treatment.

5.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 101, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine are known to cause minor side effects at the injection site and mild global systemic symptoms in first 24-48 h. Recently published case series have reported a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination, predominantly in young males. METHODS: We report a case series of 5 young male patients with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-confirmed acute myocarditis within 72 h after receiving a dose of an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Our case series suggests that myocarditis in this setting is characterized by myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement in the lateral wall of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium, reduced global LV longitudinal strain, and preserved LV ejection fraction. All patients in our series remained clinically stable during a relatively short inpatient hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with other recently published case series and national vaccine safety surveillance data, this case series suggests a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination in young males and highlights a potential pattern in accompanying CMR abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Adult , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045459

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2), which suddenly emerged in December 2019 is still haunting the entire human race and has affected not only the healthcare system but also the global socioeconomic balances. COVID-19 was quickly designated as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization as there have been about 98.0 million confirmed cases and about 2.0 million confirmed deaths, as of January 2021. Although, our understanding of COVID-19 has significantly increased since its outbreak, and multiple treatment approaches and pharmacological interventions have been tested or are currently under development to mitigate its risk-factors. Recently, some vaccine candidates showed around 95% clinical efficacy, and now receiving emergency use approvals in different countries. US FDA recently approved BNT162 and mRNA-1273 vaccines developed by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna Inc. for emergency use and vaccination in the USA. In this review, we present a succinct overview of the SARS-CoV-2 virus structure, molecular mechanisms of infection, COVID-19 epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical manifestations. We also systematize different treatment strategies and clinical trials initiated after the pandemic outbreak, based on viral infection and replication mechanisms. Additionally, we reviewed the novel pharmacological intervention approaches and vaccine development strategies against COVID-19. We speculate that the current pandemic emergency will trigger detailed studies of coronaviruses, their mechanism of infection, development of systematic drug repurposing approaches, and novel drug discoveries for current and future pandemic outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Integration
7.
Radiology ; 296(2): E46-E54, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697192

ABSTRACT

Background Despite its high sensitivity in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a screening population, the chest CT appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia is thought to be nonspecific. Purpose To assess the performance of radiologists in the United States and China in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia at chest CT. Materials and Methods In this study, 219 patients with positive COVID-19, as determined with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and abnormal chest CT findings, were retrospectively identified from seven Chinese hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from January 6 to February 20, 2020. Two hundred five patients with positive respiratory pathogen panel results for viral pneumonia and CT findings consistent with or highly suspicious for pneumonia, according to original radiologic interpretation within 7 days of each other, were identified from Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, RI. Three radiologists from China reviewed all chest CT scans (n = 424) blinded to RT-PCR findings to differentiate COVID-19 from viral pneumonia. A sample of 58 age-matched patients was randomly selected and evaluated by four radiologists from the United States in a similar fashion. Different CT features were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results For all chest CT scans (n = 424), the accuracy of the three radiologists from China in differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia was 83% (350 of 424), 80% (338 of 424), and 60% (255 of 424). In the randomly selected sample (n = 58), the sensitivities of three radiologists from China and four radiologists from the United States were 80%, 67%, 97%, 93%, 83%, 73%, and 70%, respectively. The corresponding specificities of the same readers were 100%, 93%, 7%, 100%, 93%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Compared with non-COVID-19 pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia was more likely to have a peripheral distribution (80% vs 57%, P < .001), ground-glass opacity (91% vs 68%, P < .001), fine reticular opacity (56% vs 22%, P < .001), and vascular thickening (59% vs 22%, P < .001), but it was less likely to have a central and peripheral distribution (14% vs 35%, P < .001), pleural effusion (4% vs 39%, P < .001), or lymphadenopathy (3% vs 10%, P = .002). Conclusion Radiologists in China and in the United States distinguished coronavirus disease 2019 from viral pneumonia at chest CT with moderate to high accuracy. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Competence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiologists/standards , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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