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2.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(1): e29892, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus has a high mortality rate (over 1% for patients older than 50 years). This can only be partially ascribed to other comorbidities. A possible explanation is a factor that assures a prompt response to SARS-CoV-2 in younger people, independent from the novelty of the virus itself. A factor is believed to stimulate the immune system and provide immunity against more antigens. The only external stimulation received by healthy people is vaccination (eg, the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis [DTP] vaccine). One hypothesis is that vaccination helps develop specific immunity but generates sprouting immunity against antigens in transit. The underlying immunological phenomena are the "bystander effect" and "trained immunity." The developed immunity gives protection for years until it naturally fades out. After the fifth decade of life, the immune system is almost incompetent when a viral infection occurs, and thus, at this stage, the novel coronavirus can enter the body and cause acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The initial aim is to demonstrate that blood monocytes and natural killer cells show overpowering hyperactivity, while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells experience impediments to their defensive functions in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary objectives are to correlate clinical data and vaccination history with laboratory immune patterns in order to identify protective factors. Subsequently, we are also interested in characterizing the phenotypes and state of the degree of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including monocytes, natural killer cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in healthy subjects vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: Data will be collected using the following 3 approaches: (1) an experimental analysis to study the innate immune response and to identify genetic profiles; (2) an epidemiological analysis to identify the patients' vaccination history; and (3) a clinical analysis to detect the immunological profile. RESULTS: The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on April 16, 2020, and the study started on April 27, 2020. As of February 2021, enrollment has been completed. Immunological analysis is ongoing, and we expect to complete this analysis by December 2022. CONCLUSIONS: We will recognize different populations of patients, each one with a specific immunological pattern in terms of cytokines, soluble factor serum levels, and immune cell activity. Anamnestic data, such as preceding vaccinations and comorbidities, biochemical findings like lymphocyte immunophenotyping, and pre-existing persistent cytomegalovirus infection, allow depicting the risk profile of severe COVID-19. Proof of the roles of these immunological phenomena in the development of COVID-19 can be the basis for the implementation of therapeutic immunomodulatory treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04375176; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04375176. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29892.

3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(4): 1013-1021, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597039

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection causes respiratory pathology with severe interstitial pneumonia and extra-pulmonary complications; in particular, it may predispose to thromboembolic disease. The current guidelines recommend the use of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, however, the optimal heparin dosage treatment is not well-established. We conducted a multicentre, Italian, retrospective, observational study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ordinary wards, to describe clinical characteristic of patients at admission, bleeding and thrombotic events occurring during hospital stay. The strategies used for thromboprophylaxis and its role on patient outcome were, also, described. 1091 patients hospitalized were included in the START-COVID-19 Register. During hospital stay, 769 (70.7%) patients were treated with antithrombotic drugs: low molecular weight heparin (the great majority enoxaparin), fondaparinux, or unfractioned heparin. These patients were more frequently affected by comorbidities, such as hypertension, atrial fibrillation, previous thromboembolism, neurological disease, and cancer with respect to patients who did not receive thromboprophylaxis. During hospital stay, 1.2% patients had a major bleeding event. All patients were treated with antithrombotic drugs; 5.4%, had venous thromboembolism [30.5% deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 66.1% pulmonary embolism (PE), and 3.4% patients had DVT + PE]. In our cohort the mortality rate was 18.3%. Heparin use was independently associated with survival in patients aged ≥ 59 years at multivariable analysis. We confirmed the high mortality rate of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients in ordinary wards. Treatment with antithrombotic drugs is significantly associated with a reduction of mortality rates especially in patients older than 59 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(1): e29892, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus has a high mortality rate (over 1% for patients older than 50 years). This can only be partially ascribed to other comorbidities. A possible explanation is a factor that assures a prompt response to SARS-CoV-2 in younger people, independent from the novelty of the virus itself. A factor is believed to stimulate the immune system and provide immunity against more antigens. The only external stimulation received by healthy people is vaccination (eg, the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis [DTP] vaccine). One hypothesis is that vaccination helps develop specific immunity but generates sprouting immunity against antigens in transit. The underlying immunological phenomena are the "bystander effect" and "trained immunity." The developed immunity gives protection for years until it naturally fades out. After the fifth decade of life, the immune system is almost incompetent when a viral infection occurs, and thus, at this stage, the novel coronavirus can enter the body and cause acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The initial aim is to demonstrate that blood monocytes and natural killer cells show overpowering hyperactivity, while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells experience impediments to their defensive functions in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary objectives are to correlate clinical data and vaccination history with laboratory immune patterns in order to identify protective factors. Subsequently, we are also interested in characterizing the phenotypes and state of the degree of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including monocytes, natural killer cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in healthy subjects vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: Data will be collected using the following 3 approaches: (1) an experimental analysis to study the innate immune response and to identify genetic profiles; (2) an epidemiological analysis to identify the patients' vaccination history; and (3) a clinical analysis to detect the immunological profile. RESULTS: The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on April 16, 2020, and the study started on April 27, 2020. As of February 2021, enrollment has been completed. Immunological analysis is ongoing, and we expect to complete this analysis by December 2022. CONCLUSIONS: We will recognize different populations of patients, each one with a specific immunological pattern in terms of cytokines, soluble factor serum levels, and immune cell activity. Anamnestic data, such as preceding vaccinations and comorbidities, biochemical findings like lymphocyte immunophenotyping, and pre-existing persistent cytomegalovirus infection, allow depicting the risk profile of severe COVID-19. Proof of the roles of these immunological phenomena in the development of COVID-19 can be the basis for the implementation of therapeutic immunomodulatory treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04375176; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04375176. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29892.

7.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12532, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372774

ABSTRACT

This year's Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was hosted virtually from Philadelphia July 17-21, 2021. The conference, now held annually, highlighted cutting-edge advances in basic, population and clinical sciences of relevance to the Society. Despite being held virtually, the 2021 congress was of the same scope and quality as an annual meeting held in person. An added feature of the program is that talks streamed at the designated times will then be available on-line for asynchronous viewing. The program included 77 State of the Art (SOA) talks, thematically grouped in 28 sessions, given by internationally recognized leaders in the field. The SOA speakers were invited to prepare brief illustrated reviews of their talks that were peer reviewed and are included in this article. The topics, across the main scientific themes of the congress, include Arterial Thromboembolism, Coagulation and Natural Anticoagulants, COVID-19 and Coagulation, Diagnostics and Omics, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis, Hemophilia and Rare Bleeding Disorders, Hemostasis in Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity, Pediatrics, Platelet Disorders, von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Angiopathies, Platelets and Megakaryocytes, Vascular Biology, Venous Thromboembolism and Women's Health. These illustrated capsules highlight the major scientific advances with potential to impact clinical practice. Readers are invited to take advantage of the excellent educational resource provided by these illustrated capsules. They are also encouraged to use the image in social media to draw attention to the high quality and impact of the science presented at the congress.

9.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12520, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355899

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary embolism (PE) has not been accounted for as a cause of death contributing to cause-specific mortality in global reports. METHODS: We analyzed global PE-related mortality by focusing on the latest year available for each member state in the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database, which provides age-sex-specific aggregated mortality data transmitted by national authorities for each underlying cause of death. PE-related deaths were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes for acute PE or nonfatal manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The 2001 WHO standard population served for standardization. RESULTS: We obtained data from 123 countries covering a total population of 2 602 561 422. Overall, 50 (40.6%) were European, 39 (31.7%) American, 13 (10.6%) Eastern Mediterranean, 13 (10.6%) Western Pacific, 3 (2.4%) Southeast Asian, and 2 (1.6%) African. Of 116 countries classifiable according to population income, 57 (49.1%) were high income, 42 (36.2%) upper-middle income, 14 (12.1%) lower-middle income, and 3 (2.6%) low income. A total of 18 726 382 deaths were recorded, of which 86 930 (0.46%) were attributed to PE. PE-related mortality rate increased with age in most countries. The reporting of PE-related deaths was heterogeneous, with an age-standardized mortality rate ranging from 0 to 24 deaths per 100 000 population-years. Income status only partially explained this heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Reporting of PE-related mortality in official national vital registration was characterized by extreme heterogeneity across countries. These findings mandate enhanced efforts toward systematic and uniform coverage of PE-related mortality and provides a case for full recognition of PE and VTE as a primary cause of death.

10.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12532, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321717

ABSTRACT

This year's Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was hosted virtually from Philadelphia July 17-21, 2021. The conference, now held annually, highlighted cutting-edge advances in basic, population and clinical sciences of relevance to the Society. Despite being held virtually, the 2021 congress was of the same scope and quality as an annual meeting held in person. An added feature of the program is that talks streamed at the designated times will then be available on-line for asynchronous viewing. The program included 77 State of the Art (SOA) talks, thematically grouped in 28 sessions, given by internationally recognized leaders in the field. The SOA speakers were invited to prepare brief illustrated reviews of their talks that were peer reviewed and are included in this article. The topics, across the main scientific themes of the congress, include Arterial Thromboembolism, Coagulation and Natural Anticoagulants, COVID-19 and Coagulation, Diagnostics and Omics, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis, Hemophilia and Rare Bleeding Disorders, Hemostasis in Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity, Pediatrics, Platelet Disorders, von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Angiopathies, Platelets and Megakaryocytes, Vascular Biology, Venous Thromboembolism and Women's Health. These illustrated capsules highlight the major scientific advances with potential to impact clinical practice. Readers are invited to take advantage of the excellent educational resource provided by these illustrated capsules. They are also encouraged to use the image in social media to draw attention to the high quality and impact of the science presented at the congress.

11.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5556207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314165

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 2020). Patients' characteristics were collected at entry, including age, sex, obesity, smoking status, blood parameters, history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases, and medications in use. These were used to identify subtypes of patients with similar characteristics through hierarchical clustering based on Gower distance. Using multivariable Cox regressions, these clusters were then tested for association with mortality and modification of effect by treatment with HCQ. We identified two clusters, one of 3,913 younger patients with lower circulating inflammation levels and better renal function, and one of 483 generally older and more comorbid subjects, more prevalently men and smokers. The latter group was at increased death risk adjusted by HCQ (HR[CI95%] = 3.80[3.08-4.67]), while HCQ showed an independent inverse association (0.51[0.43-0.61]), as well as a significant influence of cluster∗HCQ interaction (p < 0.001). This was driven by a differential association of HCQ with mortality between the high (0.89[0.65-1.22]) and the low risk cluster (0.46[0.39-0.54]). These effects survived adjustments for additional medications in use and were concordant with associations with disease severity and outcome. These findings suggest a particularly beneficial effect of HCQ within low risk Covid-19 patients and may contribute to clarifying the current controversy on HCQ efficacy in Covid-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 639970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285307

ABSTRACT

Background: Protease inhibitors have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for COVID-19 patients. Objectives: To describe the association between lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) use and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Study Design: Multicenter observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted in 33 Italian hospitals. Medications, preexisting conditions, clinical measures, and outcomes were extracted from medical records. Patients were retrospectively divided in three groups, according to use of LPV/r, DRV/c or none of them. Primary outcome in a time-to event analysis was death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting by multinomial propensity scores. Results: Out of 3,451 patients, 33.3% LPV/r and 13.9% received DRV/c. Patients receiving LPV/r or DRV/c were more likely younger, men, had higher C-reactive protein levels while less likely had hypertension, cardiovascular, pulmonary or kidney disease. After adjustment for propensity scores, LPV/r use was not associated with mortality (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13), whereas treatment with DRV/c was associated with a higher death risk (HR = 1.89, 1.53 to 2.34, E-value = 2.43). This increased risk was more marked in women, in elderly, in patients with higher severity of COVID-19 and in patients receiving other COVID-19 drugs. Conclusions: In a large cohort of Italian patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a real-life setting, the use of LPV/r treatment did not change death rate, while DRV/c was associated with increased mortality. Within the limits of an observational study, these data do not support the use of LPV/r or DRV/c in COVID-19 patients.

13.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 982-991, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284738

ABSTRACT

Historically, the vaccination strategies developed in the second half of the 20th century have facilitated the eradication of infectious diseases. From the onset of COVID-19 pandemic to the end of April 2021, more than 150 million cases and 3 million deaths were documented worldwide with disruption of the economic and social activity, and with devastating material, physical, and psychological consequences. Reports of unusual and severe thrombotic events, including cerebral and splanchnic venous thrombosis and other autoimmune adverse reactions, such as immune thrombocytopenia or thrombotic microangiopathies in connection with some of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, have caused a great deal of concern within the population and the medical community. This report is intended to provide practical answers following an overview of our knowledge on these thrombotic events that are extremely rare but have serious consequences. Vaccine hesitancy threatens to reverse the progress made in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases. These adverse events must be put into perspective with an objective analysis of the facts and the issues of the vaccination strategy during this SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Health care professionals remain the most pertinent advisors and influencers regarding vaccination decisions; they have to be supported to provide reliable and credible information on vaccines. We need to inform, reassure, and support our patients when the prescription is made. Facing these challenges and observations, a panel of experts express their insights and propose a tracking algorithm for vaccinated patients based on a 10-point guideline for decision-making on what to do and not to do.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clinical Decision-Making , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
16.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 1005-1015, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202836

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 2020 outbreak, a large body of data has been provided on general management and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Yet, relatively little is known on characteristics and outcome of patients managed in Internal Medicine Units (IMU). To address this gap, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine has conducted a nationwide cohort multicentre study on death outcome in adult COVID-19 patients admitted and managed in IMU. This study assessed 3044 COVID-19 patients at 41 referral hospitals across Italy from February 3rd to May 8th 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, organ dysfunction, treatment, and outcomes including death were assessed. During the study period, 697 patients (22.9%) were transferred to intensive care units, and 351 died in IMU (death rate 14.9%). At admission, factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were age (OR 2.46, p = 0.000), productive cough (OR 2.04, p = 0.000), pre-existing chronic heart failure (OR 1.58, p = 0.017) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.17, p = 0.048), the number of comorbidities (OR 1.34, p = 0.000) and polypharmacy (OR 1.20, p = 0.000). Of note, up to 40% of elderly patients did not report fever at admission. Decreasing PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was strongly inversely associated with survival. The use of conventional oxygen supplementation increased with the number of pre-existing comorbidities, but it did not associate with better survival in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100. The latter, significantly benefited by the early use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Our study identified PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission and comorbidity as the main alert signs to inform clinical decisions and resource allocation in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to IMU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Internal Medicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 710-712, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142611

ABSTRACT

We report here an imported case of SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern B.1.1.351 (also known as 20H/501Y.V2 or "South African variant" or VOC 202012/02) in a 66-years old symptomatic male who returned from Malawi to Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Humans , Italy , Malawi , Male , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Travel
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1054-1065, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. AIM: We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. RESULTS: Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thrombophilia/blood
19.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 989-996, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095732

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe acute respiratory failure. Early identification of high-risk COVID-19 patients is crucial. We aimed to derive and validate a simple score for the prediction of severe outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was carried out by the Italian Society of Internal Medicine. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables were collected at hospital admission at five hospitals. Three algorithm selection models were used to construct a predictive risk score: backward Selection, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), and Random Forest. Severe outcome was defined as the composite of need for non-invasive ventilation, need for orotracheal intubation, or death. A total of 610 patients were included in the analysis, 313 had a severe outcome. The subset for the derivation analysis included 335 patients, the subset for the validation analysis 275 patients. The LASSO selection identified 6 variables (age, history of coronary heart disease, CRP, AST, D-dimer, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio) and resulted in the best performing score with an area under the curve of 0.79 in the derivation cohort and 0.80 in the validation cohort. Using a cut-off of 7 out of 13 points, sensitivity was 0.93, specificity 0.34, positive predictive value 0.59, and negative predictive value 0.82. The proposed score can identify patients at low risk for severe outcome who can be safely managed in a low-intensity setting after hospital admission for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
20.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1654-1667, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998022

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was first described in late 2019 and has since developed into a pandemic affecting more than 21 million people worldwide. Of particular relevance for acute care is the occurrence of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC), which is characterised by hypercoagulability, immunothrombosis and venous thromboembolism, and contributes to hypoxia in a significant proportion of patients. This review describes diagnosis and treatment of CAC in the emergency department and in intensive care. We summarise the pathological mechanisms and common complications of CAC such as pulmonary thrombosis and venous thromboembolic events and discuss current strategies for thromboprophylaxis and therapeutic anti-coagulation in the acute care setting.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Hemostasis , Humans , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
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