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1.
Science ; 375(6577): 161-167, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648160

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the critical need for broad-spectrum therapeutics against respiratory viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major threat to pediatric patients and older adults. We describe 4'-fluorouridine (4'-FlU, EIDD-2749), a ribonucleoside analog that inhibits RSV, related RNA viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with high selectivity index in cells and human airway epithelia organoids. Polymerase inhibition within in vitro RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assays established for RSV and SARS-CoV-2 revealed transcriptional stalling after incorporation. Once-daily oral treatment was highly efficacious at 5 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) in RSV-infected mice or 20 mg/kg in ferrets infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, initiated 24 or 12 hours after infection, respectively. These properties define 4'-FlU as a broad-spectrum candidate for the treatment of RSV, SARS-CoV-2, and related RNA virus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Uracil Nucleotides/pharmacology , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mononegavirales/drug effects , Mononegavirales/physiology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcription, Genetic , Uracil Nucleotides/administration & dosage , Uracil Nucleotides/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 183-193, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275241

ABSTRACT

Near the end of 2019, a new betacoronavirus started to efficiently transmit between humans, resulting in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Unprecedented worldwide efforts were made to identify and repurpose antiviral therapeutics from collections of approved drugs and known bioactive compounds. Typical pitfalls of this approach (promiscuous/cytotoxic compounds leading to false positives), combined with bypassing antiviral drug development parameters due to urgency have resulted in often disappointing outcomes. A flood of publications, press-releases, and media posts, created confusion in the general public and sometime mobilized precious resources for clinical trials with minimal prospect of success. Breakthroughs have been made, not in the laboratory but in the clinic, resulting from the empiric identification of mitigators of clinical signs such as the discovery of improved disease management through immunomodulators. This opinion piece will aim to capture some of the lessons that we believe the COVID-19 pandemic has taught about drug repurposing screens.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Management , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries
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