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1.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; JOUR, 6.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2089958

ABSTRACT

The microbiome innovation has resulted in an umbrella term, postbiotics, which refers to non-viable microbial cells, metabolic byproducts and their microbial components released after lysis. Postbiotics, modulate immune response, gene expression, inhibit pathogen binding, maintain intestinal barriers, help in controlling carcinogenesis and pathogen infections. Postbiotics have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties with favorable physiological, immunological, neuro-hormonal, regulatory and metabolic reactions. Consumption of postbiotics relieves symptoms of various diseases and viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2. Postbiotics can act as alternatives for pre-probiotic specially in immunosuppressed patients, children and premature neonates. Postbiotics are used to preserve and enhance nutritional properties of food, elimination of biofilms and skin conditioning in cosmetics. Postbiotics have numerous advantages over live bacteria with no risk of bacterial translocation from the gut to blood, acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. The process of extraction, standardization, transport, and storage of postbiotic is more natural. Bioengineering techniques such as fermentation technology, high pressure etc., may be used for the synthesis of different postbiotics. Safety assessment and quality assurance of postbiotic is important as they may induce stomach discomfort, sepsis and/or toxic shock. Postbiotics are still in their infancy compared to pre- and pro- biotics but future research in this field may contribute to improved physiological functions and host health. The current review comprehensively summarizes new frontiers of research in postbiotics. Copyright © 2022 Aggarwal, Sabharwal, Kaushik, Joshi, Aayushi and Suri.

2.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 34(3):435-438, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081600

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of pandemic, health sector has been facing innumerable challenges right from prevention to management of COVID-19. This study attempts to understand these factors from a local perspective that will help in better planning and management of situation for the future. Karnataka was one of the 8 states selected as part of a multisectoral qualitative study. Perspectives of frontline managers regarding the management of COVID 19 pandemic situation were taken by in depth interviews. Deductive thematic analysis from the audio recordings and transcripts showed public apprehensions, gaps in decentralized approach and specific guidelines, monitoring difficulties and workforce related issues as factors of concern. © 2022, Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine. All rights reserved.

3.
Infection prevention in practice ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073691

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially affected the antibiotic stewardship activities in most hospitals of India. Aims We conducted an antibiotic point-prevalence survey (PPS) immediately after the decline of a major COVID-19 wave at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital. By doing so we aimed to identify the antibiotic prescription patterns, identify factors influencing the choice of antibiotics, and identify/develop strategies to improve the antibiotic stewardship program in such setups. Methods The PPS was single-centred, cross-sectional, and retrospective in nature. Patients admitted in various wards and intensive care units (ICUs) between September 2021 to October 2021 were included in our PPS. Results Of the included 460 patients, 192 were prescribed antibiotics. Of these 192 patients, ICU-admitted patients had the highest number of antibiotics prescribed i.e. 2.09 ± 0.92. Only a minor fraction (7.92 %) of antibiotics prescriptions were on the basis of culture reports. Most of the antibiotics were prescribed empirically by the parenteral route. The most common group of antibiotics prescribed were third-generation cephalosporins. Carbapenems were the most common designated antibiotics prescribed. A large number of patients (22.40 %) were prescribed double anaerobic cover. Conclusion The strategies that we identified to improve the antibiotic stewardship program at our institute included reviving the culture of sending culture reports to prescribe antibiotics, improving surgical prophylaxis guidelines, training resident doctors to categorize antibiotic prescriptions appropriately, closely monitoring prescriptions providing double anaerobic cover, and improving the electronic medical record system for improving prescription auditing.

4.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):OC21-OC24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067195

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is supplemented by clinical severity indices. These indices are the National Early Warning Score (NEWS, which aids in risk stratification), CT severity score (radiological severity score), and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct value, which provides a semi-quantitative measure of viral load). Aim(s): To assess the correlation between NEWS at admission, RT-PCR Ct value and CT severity score in mild and moderate COVID-19 patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak hospital, New Delhi, from January to June 2021. The study included 50 subjects (25 with mild COVID-19 and 25 with moderate COVID-19). NEWS was calculated at admission and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Ct value was estimated using real-time RT-PCR. CT severity score was calculated based on High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest findings. The correlation among the parameters was determined using Pearson correlation formula. Result(s): The mean age of subjects in the mild and moderate COVID-19 groups were 49.52 years and 51.84 years, respectively. The mean RT-PCR Ct value of E gene was 24.48 and Rdrp gene was 24.56 in the mild COVID-19 group;while in the moderate group it was 23.72 for both E gene and Rdrp genes. The correlation between NEWS and Ct value of E gene (r-value=-0.06, p-value=0.68), Ct value of Rdrp gene (r-value=-0.03, p-value=0.79) and the correlation between CT severity score and Ct value of E gene (r-value=-0.05, p-value=0.73), Ct value of Rdrp gene (r-value=-0.06, p-value=0.68) was negative and insignificant. The mean CT severity score in mild COVID-19 group was 3.92, and in moderate COVID-19 group was 9.88. A significant positive correlation was found between the CT severity score and NEWS at admission. Conclusion(s): The clinical severity of COVID-19 as estimated by NEWS corroborates with CT severity score while the relationship between RT-PCR Ct value and clinicoradiological severity needs to be ascertained by further research. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(7):2851-2858, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969836

ABSTRACT

Financial crises impact the economy as well as the banking sector of the country in a systemic risk form. It’s a contagion impact that rolls from one nation to the another, one bank to the another, one crisis to the another and one factor to the another. This paper studies and analyses this domino impact of the 4 selected financial crises (US subprime crises, Russian financial crises, Eurozone crises and Covid 19 crises) on the Brazil’s economy and banking sector, along with the quantitative impact on various key variables. The researcher analysed the financial position of top 2 banks of Brazil from 2002 to 2021 along with the country’s macroeconomic position in the same period. The researcher has done an in-depth analysis of each bank with financial factors as dependent variables, macroeconomic factors as independent variables and selected financial crises as fixed and latent variables. MANOVA is used to analyse the mean difference of each parameter during each selected financial crises for both the banks. The groups of key factors are formed based upon the results, which showed almost no discrepancy in the results of both the banks. ANOVA pairwise comparisons is used to understand the domino impact of each variable and the corresponding pairs of each selected crises. The first bank showed much dominance of US subprime crises on Russian, Eurozone and Covid 19 crises for many factors, and only one factor (ROE) dominance for Russian on eurozone and covid 19. The second bank showed all the selected financial crises dominance on each other for many factors.

6.
AEROSOL AND AIR QUALITY RESEARCH ; 22(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969624

ABSTRACT

Measurement of particulate matter (PM) constituent such as black carbon (BC) over urban sites is critically important owing to its adverse health and climate impacts. However, the impacts associated with BC are poorly understood primarily because of the scarcity and uncertainties of measurements of BC. Here, we present BC measurement at an urban site of Delhi using a characterized continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) for a year-long period, i.e., from September, 2019 to August, 2020. This measurement period covers events, i.e., period of crop residue burnings from nearby states, festive events, e.g., Diwali and New Year, and first COVID-19 lockdown period. Effects of these events combining with local emissions and meteorological conditions on BC mass concentration (MBC) are investigated to find the possible cause of severe pollution levels in Delhi. Mean MBC for the complete observation period was found to be 5.02 ?? 4.40 ??g m???3. MBC showed significant seasonal as well diurnal variations. Winter season (December to February) is observed to be the most polluted season owing to increased local emissions and non-favorable meteorological conditions. Regional emission from crop burning in nearby states during October and November is the main contributing factor for increased pollution in this postmonsoon season. Furthermore, analysis reveals that cracker burning during festivals can also be considered as contributing factor to high MBC for a short period in post-monsoon and winter seasons. Significant decrease in MBC due to COVID-19 lockdown is also observed. MBC in summer and monsoon are lower as compared to other seasons but are still higher than mean MBC levels in several other urban cities of different countries. Also, the BC data obtained from nearby sites surface black carbon (SBC) are compared against the MBC to evaluate coherency among the different datasets, and discussed in detail.

7.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE ; 26(7):825-832, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939281

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a cause of significant mental health disturbances in medical health personnel. However, 18 months into the pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) have become accustomed to the heightened stress and anxiety that comes with caring for COVID patients. Through this study, we aim to measure depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia in doctors with the help of validated scales. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study with an online survey design conducted among doctors from major hospitals in New Delhi. The questionnaire included participant demographics, including designation, specialty, marital status, and living arrangements. This was followed by questions from the validated depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS-21), and insomnia severity index (ISI). Depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia scores were calculated for each participant, and the data were analyzed statistically. Results: The mean scores of the whole study population showed no depression, moderate anxiety, mild stress, and subthreshold insomnia. Female doctors exhibited more psychological issues (mild depression and stress, moderate anxiety, but only subthreshold insomnia) as compared to males (mild anxiety, but no depression, stress, and insomnia). Junior doctors also had higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores than senior doctors. Similarly, single doctors, those living alone, and those not having kids had higher DASS and insomnia scores. Discussion: HCWs have been under tremendous mental stress during this pandemic which is influenced by multiple factors. Female sex, junior doctors, working on the frontline, not being in a relationship, and living alone may be some of the factors recognized in our study and corroborated by many authors, which may increase the chances of depression, anxiety, and stress in them. HCWs need regular counseling, time off for rejuvenation, and social support to overcome this hurdle.

8.
Production and Operations Management ; : 20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868688

ABSTRACT

Governments and healthcare organizations increasingly pay attention to social media for handling a disease outbreak. The institutions and organizations need information support to gain insights into the situation and act accordingly. Currently, they primarily rely on ground-level data, collecting which is a long and cumbersome process. Social media data present immense opportunities to use ground data quickly and effectively. Governments and HOs can use these data in launching rapid and speedy remedial actions. Social media data contain rich content in the form of people's reactions, calls-for-help, and feedback. However, in healthcare operations, the research on social media for providing information support is limited. Our study attempts to fill the gap mentioned above by investigating the relationship between the activity on social media and the quantum of the outbreak and further using content analytics to construct a model for segregating tweets. We use the case example of the COVID-19 outbreak. The pandemic has advantages in contributing to the generalizability of results and facilitating the model's validation through data from multiple waves. The findings show that social media activity reflects the outbreak situation on the ground. In particular, we find that negative tweets posted by people during a crisis outbreak concur with the quantum of a disease outbreak. Further, we find a positive association between this relationship and increased information sharing through retweets. Building further on this insight, we propose a model using advanced analytical methods to reduce a large amount of unstructured data into four key categories-irrelevant posts, emotional outbursts, distress alarm, and relief measures. The supply-side stakeholders (such as policy makers and humanitarian organizations) could use this information on time and optimize resources and relief packages in the right direction proactively.

9.
Diabetic Medicine ; 39(SUPPL 1):79, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868629

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Covid-19 has been associated with erratic glycaemic control, sometimes leading to diabetic emergencies, including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We reviewed DKA admissions to the Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals to assess whether being admitted with DKA during the early phase of the covid-19 pandemic affected the clinical presentation and outcomes of DKA locally. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients with DKA in the pre-covid period (31 patients): 16th January-15th March 2020, versus those with DKA in the initial covid period (29 patients): 16th March-15th May 2020. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, length of hospital stay (LOS), and diabetes-specific parameters, including type and duration of diabetes, last HbA1c, diabetes medications, DKA parameters leading to Critical Care admission, and time to DKA resolution. Results: Those presenting with DKA during the covid period were more likely to be male, of ethnic background, had longer duration of diabetes, better-controlled diabetes, and there were three times more patients with type 2 diabetes. Prescription of long-acting insulin alongside DKA protocol was significantly better during the covid period. Mean time to DKA resolution was significantly longer and mean LOS was 24 hours longer in the covid period. Conclusions: Diagnosis and management of DKA was objectively much better during the covid period but DKA occurred in more unexpected groups and recovery time was longer. Further study of larger samples with a multi-centred approach to see how DKA presentation has evolved during the pandemic would benefit our understanding of the impact of covid-19 on diabetes.

10.
Annals of Indian Psychiatry ; 6(1):63-66, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855971

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization in January 2020 declared an outbreak of novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, an international public health emergency. The suddenness of this calamity with no end in sight caused a great deal of stress, anxiety, and depression throughout the world. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological impact during the developing COVID-19 situation among female health professionals. Methods: This was an observation-based cross-sectional study conducted for a total of 3-month duration between August and October 2020. A structured questionnaire to assess the psychological impact was sent via the (email) electronic mail system, and responses were obtained from 343 female doctors. Results: The mean & PLUSMN;standard deviation values for age were found to be 39 & PLUSMN;8 years. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety were seen in a majority of the respondents. Conclusions: The present study has shown severe psychological impact associated with the pandemic on female health-care workers and highlights the major factors associated.

11.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(1):445-451, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1812825

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on public mental health besides playing havoc with one's physical health. The study aims to fill the existing gap in the research concerning the impact of COVID-19 on professionals working from homes (WFH). Aims: To estimate the severity of anxiety in WFH Professionals during COVID-19 and to assess its impact on their financial, personal and professional lives. Material and Methods: It was an online questionnaire designed to profile remotely working professionals to assess the anxiety levels using Becks anxiety inventory (BAI) scale and the impact of Covid-19 on the personal, professional and financial status on 255 qualified respondents (123 women & 135 men). Statistical analysis: Chi-square test was done by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software. P-value P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: WFH during the COVID-19 restrictions increased moderate to severe anxiety levels (32.09%) with females (51.02%) suffering at higher rates than their male counterparts (15.09%). In these remotely working women, being married (64%) staying in a joint family (90.9%), having children (90.9%) heightened this anxiety. Results suggest that remotely working has adversely impacted their personal lives with females suffering at higher levels than men. It affected their financial lives adversely with females suffering at higher rates. Professional situation got severely impacted by this WFH however;women and men were similarly affected. Conclusion: Worsening anxiety levels and adverse impact on the personal, financial and professional lives in these remotely working Professionals especially women necessitates finding solutions by employers, psychologists and psychiatrists to alleviate this indirect impact of Covid 19.

12.
Diabetic Medicine ; 39:1, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1777198
13.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2021 ; : 3165-3170, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1722884

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus was originated in Wuhan City in China in 2019, and it led to something for which the world was not prepared. In the world where the extent of COVID'19 was ubiquitous, India was one of the countries that witnessed multiple phases of its spread. Moreover, since India has one of the largest populations, this made analyzing the sentiment of people during this time a task that held significance. COVID'19 brought a mix of emotions across the different periods in its first 18 months. During this time, social media was flooded with tweets and hashtags expressing both favorable and negative opinions about COVID'19, pandemic, lockdown, and vaccines. © 2021 IEEE.

14.
Statistics and Applications ; 19(1):367-386, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1609844

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has reshaped our world in a timescale much shorter than what we can understand and is now a major global health threat. As there was no preparedness on this virus, authorities around the world took restrictive policy measures to control the spread to ensure the wellbeing of the people. This pandemic affected both developed and underdeveloped countries equally. Moreover, existing socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the countries may be contributing to the variation in health outcomes between countries. This study aims to analyse the influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on COVID-19 related health outcomes in SAARC nations. The study is important as the objectives behind SAARC are regional integration and economic development of its member countries. Panel regression analysis and Negative binomial regression are used to identify country specific factors that are associated with COVID-19 related Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and count data, such as, daily cases and active cases, respectively. The findings of the study indicate that increasing CFR are associated with countries having higher cardiovascular death rates, diabetes prevalence, health expenditure (percentage of GDP) and life expectancy. It is also found that co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, Tuberculosis and diabetes prevalence are associated with increased national caseloads and mortality, respectively. The study may help government to evaluate policies that can aid in managing the effects of the pandemic by utilizing resources and capabilities in an efficient way.

15.
31st Institution of Chemical Engineers Annual Hazards Conference, HAZARDS 2021 ; 2021-November, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1564549

ABSTRACT

Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is widely used in process industries to design the plant protection systems. This method considers the occurrence of a hazard as an initiating event, leading to catastrophic failures, then examining the adequacy of Independent Protection Layers (IPLs) to mitigate the risk. LOPA methodology was applied to an encounter with the covid infection as an initiating event and then independent protection layers, namely health safeguarding protocols, such as social distancing, ventilation, hand hygiene, face mask and vaccination were assigned to mitigate the risk of infection and fatality. It was concluded that LOPA can also be applied to the risk of covid infection which can evaluate a numerical value for the death risk frequency, in order to manage the transmission risk to a tolerable level. The latter is the fatality risk due to seasonal flu. This paper adopts process safety LOPA methodology to covid infection risk, by initially calculating a transmission rate and then evaluates the safeguards’ probability of failures in order to develop a ‘Covid Fatality Metric’ which is the measurement tool, to manage the virus spread. The input data is based on public domain covid infection statistical data. The covid transmission rate in public is statistically calculated with random number sampling to simulate the random pattern of virus person to person infection in the community. The success of the covid protection protocols is probabilistic and depends on the public compliance which are modelled by observational surveys. The methodology is flexible enough to be applied to all public places. Whilst covid prevention compliance surveys are possible for smaller communities such as offices, for a larger population, it is proposed to use CCTV digital image processing for the public compliance measurements. © 2021 IChemE

16.
Epidemiology and Infection ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527951

ABSTRACT

With increasing demand for large numbers of testing during COVID-19 pandemic, came alternative protocols with shortened turn-around time. We evaluated the performance of such a protocol wherein 1138 consecutive clinic attendees were enrolled;584 and 554 respectively from two independent study sites in the cities of Pune and Kolkata. Paired nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested by using both reference and index methods in blinded fashion. Prior to conducting RT-PCR, swabs collected in viral transport medium (VTM) were processed for RNA extraction (reference method) and swabs collected in dry tube without VTM were incubated in Tris-EDTA-Proteinase K buffer for 30 minutes and heat inactivated at 98oC for 6 minutes (index method). Overall sensitivity and specificity of the index method were 78.9% (95% CI 71% to 86%) and 99 % (95% CI 98% to 99.6%) respectively. Agreement between the index and reference method was 96.8 % (k = 0.83, SE=0.030). The reference method exhibited enhanced detection of viral genes (E, N and RdRP) with lower Ct values compared to the index method. The index method can be used for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection with appropriately chosen primer-probe set and heat treatment approach in pressing time;low sensitivity constrains its potential wider use. © 2021 Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.

17.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):341A-342A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508738

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID19 pandemic has affected persons dietary habits and life style, with effects on body weight. We have assessed the effect of the pandemic on the liver health by quantifying the changes in liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods: This is a multi-center US study that included 3 tertiary clinical centers. Patients with chronic liver disease (51 NAFLD, 8 with resolved hepatitis C, 3 chronic hepatitis B, 5 primary biliary cholangitis and 36 combination of chronic liver disease), without evidence of an acute process (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol abuse or new decompensation of cirrhosis), were enrolled. Patients were assessed between January and March 2020 and January and March 2021. Assessment included laboratory tests and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) on vibration transient elastography (VCTE). Results: 103 patients were assessed twice during the two periods. Baseline mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 37 ± 36 (SD) U/L;aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 ± 18 U/L;total bilirubin 0.6 ± 0.31 mg/dL;albumin, 4.2 ± 0.72 g/dL;CAP score 293 ± 70 dB/m;and LSM on VCTE 8.1 ±6.2 kPa. Weight gain occurred in 54% of the population, whereas 39% lost weight, and 7% had no weight change. LSM increased by >20% in 30% of subjects;decreased by 20% in 27%;and remained within the 20% range in 43%. LSM increase by 20% was associated with significant weight gain and ALT increase (+2.3 ± 6.5 kg, and +17 ± 49.U/L (p<0.05)), in comparison to subjects who had their LSM changes within 20% range (+1.1 (3.7) kg, and -5.3 ±22.0 U/L) or had >20% decrease in LSM (-0.3 ±5.8 kg, and -6.0 ±21 U/L). CAP score median change was -2.9 ±85 dB/m in those who had LSM increase by >20%, whereas the score changed by 0.0 ± 44 dB/m in those who had LSM changes within 20% or 1.0 ± 58 dB/m in those >20% decrease. Conclusion: During the COVID 19 pandemic in this U.S. population, more than half of subjects with chronic liver disease gained weight, but others had no change or decreased weight. Adverse liver changes (LSM>20% and increased ALT) occurred in one-third of the population.

18.
Zhurnal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii ; 98(4):397-415, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471361

ABSTRACT

Introduction. COVID-19 has become a global impediment by bringing everything to a halt starting from January 2020. India underwent the lockdown starting from 22nd March 2020 with the sudden spike in the number of COVID-19 patients in major cities and states. This study focused on how metabolites play a crucial role in SARSCoV- 2 prognosis. Materials and methods. Metabolome profiling of 106 plasma samples and 24 swab samples from symptomatic patients in the Indian population of the Mumbai region was done. COVID-19 positive samples were further segregated under the non-severe COVID-19 and severe COVID-19 patient cohort for both plasma and swab. Results. After analyzing the raw files, total 7,949 and 12,871 metabolites in plasma and swab were found. 11 and 35 significantly altered metabolites were found in COVID-19 positive compared to COVID-19 negative plasma and swab samples, respectively. Also, 9 and 23 significantly altered metabolites were found in severe COVID-19 positive to non-severe COVID-19 positive plasma and swab samples, respectively. The majorly affected pathways in COVID-19 patients were found to be the amino acid metabolism pathway, sphingosine metabolism pathway, and bile salt metabolism pathway. Conclusion. This study facilitates identification of potential metabolite-based biomarker candidates for rapid diagnosis and prognosis for clinical applications. © 2021, Central Research Institute for Epidemiology. All rights reserved.

20.
Bmj Leader ; 5(2):124-126, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1341337

ABSTRACT

Elective surgical suspension during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a sizeable surgical case backlog throughout the world. As we ramp back up, how do we decide which cases take priority? Potential future waves (or a future pandemic) may lead to additional surgical shutdown and subsequent reopening. Deciding which cases to prioritise in the face of limited health system capacity has emerged as a new challenge for healthcare leaders. Here we present an ethically grounded and operationally efficient surgical prioritisation framework for healthcare leaders and practitioners, drawing insights from decision analysis and organisational sciences.

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