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1.
Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia ; 22:S411, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2042280

ABSTRACT

Context: CARTITUDE-2 (NCT04133636) Cohort A is assessing cilta-cel in lenalidomide-refractory patients with progressive MM after 1–3 prior LOT. Objective: To present updated results from CARTITUDE-2 Cohort A. Design: Phase 2, multicohort study. Patients: Lenalidomide-refractory patients with progressive MM after 1–3 prior LOT (PI and IMiD included) and no previous exposure to BCMA-targeting agents. Interventions: Single cilta-cel infusion (target dose 0.75×106 CAR+ viable T-cells/kg) after lymphodepletion Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoint was minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity at 10-5. Management strategies were used to reduce risk of movement/neurocognitive adverse events (MNTs). Pharmacokinetics (PK) (Cmax/Tmax of CAR+T-cell transgene levels), cytokine release syndrome (CRS)-related cytokines over time, peak cytokine levels by response/CRS, association of cytokine levels with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), and CAR+T-cell CD4/CD8 ratio by response/CRS/ICANS are being evaluated. Results: As of January 2022 (median follow-up [MFU] 17.1 months), 20 patients (65% male;median age 60 years;median 2 prior LOT;95% refractory to last LOT) received cilta-cel. Overall response rate was 95% (90% ≥complete response;95% ≥very good partial response). Median times to first and best response were 1.0 month and 2.6 months, respectively. All 16 MRD-evaluable patients achieved MRD negativity at 10-5. Median duration of response was not reached. At 12 months, event-free rate was 79% and progression-free survival rate was 75%. 95% of patients had CRS (gr3/4 10%);median time to onset was 7 days and median duration was 3 days. Neurotoxicity was reported in 30% of patients (5 gr1/2;1 gr3/4) and ICANS in 15% (all 3 gr1/2);1 patient had gr2 facial paralysis. No MNTs were observed. 1 death occurred due to COVID-19 (treatment-related), 2 due to progressive disease, and 1 due to sepsis (not treatment-related). Preliminary PK analyses showed peak CAR-T cell expansion at day 10.5;median persistence was 153.5 days. Conclusions: At MFU of 17.1 months, a single cilta-cel infusion resulted in deep and durable responses in lenalidomide-refractory MM patients with 1–3 prior LOT. We will present updated PK/cytokine/CAR-T subset analyses and clinical correlation to provide novel insights into biological correlates of efficacy/safety in this population.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e630-e644, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant [SOT], hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) versus nonimmunocompromised healthcare workers (HCWs). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for immunoglobulin G to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1271 participants enrolled: 1099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared with HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (P < .01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r = 0.89, P < .0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCWs. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e815-e821, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338685

ABSTRACT

A chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy recipient developed severe coronavirus disease 2019, intractable RNAemia, and viral replication lasting >2 months. Premortem endotracheal aspirate contained >2 × 1010 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copies/mL and infectious virus. Deep sequencing revealed multiple sequence variants consistent with intrahost virus evolution. SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cell-mediated immunity were minimal. Prolonged transmission from immunosuppressed patients is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab353, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337282

ABSTRACT

We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G responses in 67 patients with hematological malignancies after 2 messenger RNA vaccine doses. Forty-six percent were nonresponders; patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia were at highest risk (77% nonresponders). Patients with hematological malignancies should continue wearing masks and socially distancing. Studies of revaccination, boosters, and humoral immune correlates of protection are needed.

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