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1.
Pathol Res Pract ; 233: 153848, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757745

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the three lethal coronavirus outbreaks in the recent two decades and a serious threat to global health all over the world. The principal feature of the COVID-19 infection is the so-called "cytokine storm" exaggerated molecular response to virus distribution, which plays massive tissue and organ injury roles. Immunological treatments, including monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, have been suggested as the main approaches in treating and preventing this disease. Therefore, a proper investigation of the roles of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the aforementioned immunological responses appears essential. The present review will provide detailed information about APCs' role in the infection and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the effect of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis and treatment.

2.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(5): 133, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739301

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic which arose from China, is caused by a pathogenic virus named "severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)". Its rapid global expansion has inflicted an extreme public health concern. The attachment of receptor-binding domains (RBD) of the spike proteins (S) to the host cell's membrane, with or without the help of other cellular components such as proteases and especially co-receptors, is required for the first stage of its pathogenesis. In addition to humans, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is found on a wide range of vertebrate host's cellular surface. SARS-CoV-2 has a broad spectrum of tropism; thus, it can infect a vast range of tissues, organs, and hosts; even though the surface amino acids of the spike protein conflict in the receptor-binding region. Due to the heterogeneous ACE2 distribution and the presence of different domains on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for binding, the virus entry into diverse host cell types may depend on the host cells' receptor presentation with or without co-receptors. This review investigates multiple current types of receptor and co-receptor tropisms, with other molecular factors alongside their respective mechanisms, which facilitate the binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cells, extending the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from this perspective can effectively help prevent this disease and provide more potent treatment strategies, particularly in vulnerable people with various cellular-level susceptibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Probability , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tropism
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107331, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065225

ABSTRACT

The present review provides an overview of recent advances regarding the function of Th17 cells and their produced cytokines in the progression of viral diseases. Viral infections alone do not lead to virus-induced malignancies, as both genetic and host safety factors are also involved in the occurrence of malignancies. Acquired immune responses, through the differentiation of Th17 cells, form the novel components of the Th17 cell pathway when reacting with viral infections all the way from the beginning to its final stages. As a result, instead of inducing the right immune responses, these events lead to the suppression of the immune system. In fact, the responses from Th17 cells during persistent viral infections causes chronic inflammation through the production of IL-17 and other cytokines which provide a favorable environment for tumor growth and its development. Additionally, during the past decade, these cells have been understood to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, further research is required to understand Th17 cells' immune mechanisms in the vast variety of viral diseases. This review aims to determine the roles and effects of the immune system, especially Th17 cells, in the progression of viral diseases; which can be highly beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.


Subject(s)
Cell Transformation, Viral , Neoplasms/virology , Th17 Cells/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/immunology , Tumor Virus Infections/metabolism , Viruses/immunology
4.
Life Sci ; 270: 119124, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051825

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan of China in December 2019 and its worldwide spread has turned into the COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory disorders, lymphopenia, cytokine cascades, and the immune responses provoked by this virus play a major and fundamental role in the severity of the symptoms and the immunogenicity which it causes. Owing to the decrease in the inflammatory responses' regulation in the immune system and the sudden increase in the secretion of cytokines, it seems that an investigation of inhibitory immune checkpoints can influence theories regarding this disease's treatment methods. Acquired cell-mediated immune defense's T-cells have a key major contribution in clearing viral infections thus reducing the severity of COVID-19's symptoms. The most important diagnostic feature in individuals with COVID-19 is lymphocyte depletion, most importantly, T-cells. Due to the induction of interferon-γ (INF-γ) production by neutrophils and monocytes, which are abundantly present in the peripheral blood of the individuals with COVID-19, the expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints including, PD-1 (programmed death), PD-L1 and CTLA4 on the T-cells' surface is enhanced. The purpose of this review is to discuss the functions of these checkpoints and their effects on the dysfunction and exhaustion of T-cells, making them almost ineffective in individuals with COVID-19, especially in the cases with extreme symptoms.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Monocytes/immunology
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