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1.
Internal & Emergency Medicine ; 29:29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174913

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The optimal heparin regimen remains unknown and should balance thromboembolic and bleeding risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard or higher heparin regimens for the prevention of VTE in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We performed a systematic literature search;studies reporting on hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who received standard heparin prophylaxis vs. high (intermediate or therapeutic) heparin regimens were included if outcome events were reported by treatment group and more than 10 patients were included. Primary study outcome was in-hospital VTE. Secondary study outcomes were major bleeding (MB), all-cause death, fatal bleeding and fatal pulmonary embolism. Overall, 33 studies (11,387 patients) were included. Venous thromboembolic events occurred in 5.2% and in 8.2% of patients who received heparin prophylaxis with at high-dose or standard-dose, respectively (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.90, I2 48.8%). MB was significantly higher in patients who received high- compared to the standard-dose (4.2% vs 2.2%, RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.47-2.56, I2 18.1%). Sub-analyses showed a slight benefit associated with high-dose heparin in patients admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) but not in those to ICU. No significant differences were observed for mortality outcomes. Heparin prophylaxis at high-dose reduces the risk of VTE, but increased the risk of MB compared to the standard-dose. No clinical benefit for heparin high-dose was observed for ICU setting, but its role in the non-ICU deserves further evaluation. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021252550.

2.
Thrombosis Update ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1829604

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients exhibit an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), with VTE being the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The implementation of lockdowns following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in decreased mobility and delayed access to care, thus further increasing the susceptibility to VTE. Cancer patients may also be at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and have been shown to be more likely to experience severe COVID-19 disease compared to patients without cancer. Given that both cancer and COVID-19 exhibit a hypercoagulable state, stasis of blood flow, and endothelial injury, cancer patients with COVID-19 constitute a vulnerable population with a high risk of thrombosis and bleeding. However, to date there are limited studies evaluating whether cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a higher VTE incidence than COVID-19 patients without cancer, how to assess the risk of VTE, prophylaxis and treatment in this special population. Herein, we highlight the urgent need for studies in cancer patients with COVID-19 to ensure appropriate patient care and improve clinical outcomes. © 2022 The Authors

3.
Life ; 11(5):27, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210201

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 infection, a pandemic disease since March 2020, is associated with a high percentage of cardiovascular complications mainly of a thromboembolic (TE) nature. Although clinical patterns have been described for the assessment of patients with increased risk, many TE complications occur in patients with apparently moderate risk. Notably, a recent statement from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) atherosclerosis and vascular biology working group pointed out the key role of vascular endothelium for the recruitment of inflammatory and thrombotic pathways responsible for both disseminated intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular complications. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathophysiological process linking infection to increased TE risk is needed in order to understand the pathways of this dangerous liaison and possibly interrupt it with appropriate treatment. In this review, we describe the histological lesions and the related blood coagulation mechanisms involved in COVID-19, we define the laboratory parameters and clinical risk factors associated with TE events, and propose a prophylactic anticoagulation treatment in relation to the risk category. Finally, we highlight the concept that a solid risk assessment based on prospective multi-center data would be the challenge for a more precise risk stratification and more appropriate treatment.

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