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Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438527


Specific memory B cells and antibodies are a reliable read-out of vaccine efficacy. We analysed these biomarkers after one and two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. The second dose significantly increases the level of highly specific memory B cells and antibodies. Two months after the second dose, specific antibody levels decline, but highly specific memory B cells continue to increase, thus predicting a sustained protection from COVID-19. We show that although mucosal IgA is not induced by the vaccination, memory B cells migrate in response to inflammation and secrete IgA at mucosal sites. We show that the first vaccine dose may lead to an insufficient number of highly specific memory B cells and low concentration of serum antibodies, thus leaving vaccinees without the immune robustness needed to ensure viral elimination and herd immunity. We also clarify that the reduction of serum antibodies does not diminish the force and duration of the immune protection induced by vaccination. The vaccine does not induce sterilizing immunity. Infection after vaccination may be caused by the lack of local preventive immunity because of the absence of mucosal IgA.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cryopreservation , Female , Health Personnel , Healthy Volunteers , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lactation , Male , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265938


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to test how certain signs and symptoms related to COVID-19 in children predict the positivity or negativity of the SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in children. METHODS: We review the data of children who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 for a suspected infection. We compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects who tested positive and negative, including the sensibility, positive and negative predictive value of different combination of signs and symptoms. RESULTS: Of all the suspected infected, 2596 tested negative (96.2%) and 103 tested positive (3.8%). The median age was 7.0 and 5.3 years for the positive and negative ones, respectively. The female to male ratio was ~1:1.3. Fever and respiratory symptoms were mostly reported. Most positive children had a prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects (59.2%). A total of 99.3% of patients without fever nor exposure to the virus proved negative to the SARS-CoV-2 test. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a child without fever or contact with infected subjects is SARS-CoV-2 negative. If this were to be confirmed, many resources would be spared, with improved care of both COVID-19 and not COVID-19-affected children. IMPACT: Key message: lack of fever and exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected people highly predicts a negative results of the SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in the paediatric population. Added value to the current literature: this is the first article to prove this point. IMPACT: reduction of emergency department accesses of children with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection; increased outpatient management of children with cough or other common respiratory symptoms of infancy; sparing of many human and material health resources.