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1.
Gene Delivery Systems: Development and Applications ; : 105-128, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2089276

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease is mainly caused by bacteria and viruses. Over time, the world has suffered from various bacterial and viral-born endemics or pandemics such as Ebola, SARS-CoV-2, and influenza. Hence, the development and advancement of a rapid, scalable, and cost-effective platform is essential for supplying on-demand vaccines for prophylactic and therapeutic use. Recently, the vaccine development platform is shifting toward self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA) technology for providing a quicker response against emerging infectious outbreaks. In this chapter we have focused on a brief introduction of vaccinology history, the benefits of saRNA over mRNA, and the immune response provoked by the saRNA vaccine. Additionally, we have addressed preparation, purification, delivery, and pharmacokinetic aspects of the saRNA vaccine. We have limited our discussion to the saRNA vaccine for infectious disease, clinical translation, and future prospects. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Yashwant V. Pathak;individual chapters, the contributors.

2.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S89-S92, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024842

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that has led to crisis in the supply of essential goods and services and personal protective equipments including face masks. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare Adi's five-layered cotton face masks with N95 masks and surgical face masks with regard to cost and efficacy. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval, a sample size of 10 was randomly selected. In a closed chamber made up of glass, three plates of blood agar, chocolate agar, and MacConkey Agar (MCA) were kept and at four different times, first without mask (Group D), second with N95 mask (Group N), third with surgical mask (Group S), and finally with Adi's face mask (Group A). Participants at first coughed three times then sang for 3 min and finally spoke for 2 min for each group. Plates were observed for growth after 24 h. Inclusion Criteria: Age 18-40 years of either sex, with no comorbidities. Exclusion Criteria: Anyone having cough, cold, or fever. Results: Group A (Adi's face mask with filter) showed no growth all ten times, Group N (N95 Mask) showed no growth of colonies four times, and one colony growth six times. As far as Group D (Direct speech without mask) is concerned, it showed multiple colonies all ten times and Group S (Surgical mask) showed one colony growth all ten times. Conclusion: Adi's mask is almost equivalent to wearing an N95 mask. It is easy to use, innovative, simple, scientific, and cost-effective. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

3.
Blockchain for 5G Healthcare Applications: Security and privacy solutions ; : 347-374, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958500

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is an unparalleled threat in today’s environment of quick development, and we face it as a global community. Like climate change, it is challenging our resilience from environmental health, social security, and government to knowledge exchange and economic policy in all sectors of the economy and growth fields. So much as climate change, this too would require everybody to come together and take an appropriate initiative. The coronavirus outbreak has highlighted our strengths and vulnerabilities that it has influenced and enabled us to benefit from each other’s accomplishments and shortcomings. The entire globe might appear small amid this state of disaster and global travel bans. However, it is a period when the concept of teamwork and looking forward were never more relevant. In the wake of Covid-19, all contact-based biometric attendance systems have been rendered practically useless. Thus, a contactless biometric attendance system is the need of the hour to prevent the spreading of Covid-19. The present-day attendance systems are quite difficult to manage and maintain record. The attendance in classes or industries is mostly done manually, and logbooks are used to maintain records. This can be a cumbersome process as sometimes humans can make a mistake which might lead to inconsistency. This chapter proposes a completely automatic attendance system that uses contactless biometric as a health-care major in the Covid-19 pandemic. In a system using facial recognition, there are lots of challenges involved most of the time. These may include low intensity of light or face that is occluded. The You Only Look Once (YOLO) algorithm for facial detection has been used in this chapter to overcome this issue. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2022.

4.
Computer Communications ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1850894

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, image security and copyright protection become challenging, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic. In the paper, we develop SecDH as a medical data hiding scheme, which can guarantee the security and copyright protection of the COVID-19 images. Firstly, the cover image is normalized, which offers high resistance against the geometric attacks. Secondly, the normalized principal component as embedding factor is computed, which are calculated based on principal component analysis (PCA) between cover and mark image. Thirdly, the medical image is invisibly marked with secret mark based on normalized component, redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT) and randomized singular value decomposition (RSVD) is introduced. Finally, Arnold cat map scheme employed to ensure the security of the watermarking system. Under the experimental evaluation, our SecDH tool is not only imperceptible, but also has a satisfactory advantage in robustness and security compared with the traditional watermarking schemes.

5.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 69(7):28-33, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1361002

ABSTRACT

Background: Since its first identification in December 2019, in WUHAN (CHINA), SARS-COV-2, causative agent of Corona virus pandemic, has affected millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of death. There is much speculation about the interplay between ACEI/ARB and Corona virus infection, as for internalization into host cell SARS-COV-2 binds through S spike protein to ACE-2, aided TMPRSS2. Methods: A record based observational study has been conducted (data obtained from the clinics of fourteen physicians) in two worst affected districts of West Bengal, to find out the association of ACEI/ARB on patients, suffering from Corona virus infection. The study-protocol has already been approved by Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine. (IEC Ref. No: CREC-STM/2020-AS-37) Results: Increasing age, male sex and presence of co-morbidities (viz. Diabetes, COPD) are significantly associated with the occurrence of moderate and severe disease. Drugs (viz. ACEI/ARB), though are associated with less severe disease, have not achieved statistical significance, in the present study. Conclusion: Drugs, like ACEI/ARB, should be continued in patients suffering from COVID-19 infection, (if they are already on these drugs). © 2021 Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.

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