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Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(5): 440-445, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337298


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a deluge of scientific data since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported. The effects of COVID-19 on the digestive system are now increasingly well understood. This article aims to review the current data on the effects of COVID-19 on the digestive system with particular emphasis on preexisting digestive diseases and its implications on nutrition practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has shown that Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, pancreas and hepatobiliary system resulting in different GI manifestations. Several preexisting digestive diseases have been investigated. These studies have revealed that these special patient population groups are generally not at an increased risk to contract COVID-19, but are susceptible to develop increasing severity of disease. Aside from medical therapy, optimizing nutritional care has a beneficial role in this group of patients. SUMMARY: GI manifestations of COVID-19 in addition to preexisting digestive diseases have an impact on patient's nutrition. Digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients may be impaired. To date, there are no existing guidelines on the nutritional management of patients for this particular at-risk group. Most nutrition practices are based only on observations and clinical experience. Basic prepandemic nutrition care principles are primarily followed but often individualized based on clinical judgment.

COVID-19/pathology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Nutritional Support , Digestive System/virology , Digestive System Diseases/therapy , Humans , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(5): 931-932, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712858
Nutr Clin Pract ; 35(5): 800-805, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645182


Although Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease, growing evidence shows that it can affect the digestive system and present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Various nutrition societies have recently published their guidelines in context of the pandemic, and several points emphasize the impact of these GI manifestations on nutrition therapy. In patients with COVID-19, the normal intestinal mucosa can be disrupted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, and this could result in GI symptoms and a compromise in nutrient absorption. Optimization of oral diet is still recommended. However, given the GI effects of COVID-19, a fraction of infected patients have poor appetite and would not be able to meet their nutrition goals with oral diet alone. For this at-risk group, which includes those who are critically ill, enteral nutrition is the preferred route to promote gut integrity and immune function. In carrying this out, nutrition support practices have been revised in such ways to mitigate viral transmission and adapt to the pandemic. All measures in the GI and nutrition care of patients are clustered to limit exposure of healthcare workers. Among patients admitted to intensive care units, a significant barrier is GI intolerance, and it appears to be exacerbated by significant GI involvement specific to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nevertheless, several countermeasures can be used to ease side effects. At the end of the spectrum in which intolerance persists, the threshold for switching to parenteral nutrition may need to be lowered.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Nutritional Support/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(8): 2452-2453, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617357
JGH Open ; 4(3): 324-331, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593208


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has been classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Several studies have demonstrated that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is also a potential route. As the pandemic is continuously evolving, and more data are made available, this article highlights the best evidence and practices regarding the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus relevant to GI practice. Published clinical studies have supported that SARS-CoV-2 affects the GI tract and the liver. The largest published dataset comprised of 4243 patients and showed a pooled prevalence of GI symptoms at 17.6%. GI symptoms varied and usually preceded pulmonary symptoms by 1-2 days. These include anorexia (26.8%), nausea and vomiting (10.2%), diarrhea (12.5%), and abdominal pain (9.2%). Incidence of liver injury ranges from 15 to 53%. Evidence shows that the severity of COVID-19 infection is compounded by its effects on nutrition, most especially for the critically ill. As such, nutrition societies have recommended optimization of oral diets and oral nutritional supplements followed by early enteral nutrition if nutritional targets are not met, and parenteral nutrition in the distal end of the spectrum. In addition to possible fecal-oral transmission, GI endoscopy procedures, which are considered to be aerosol-generating procedures, contribute to increased risk to GI health-care professionals. Infection prevention measures and guidelines are essential in protecting both patients and personnel.