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Cureus ; 14(4): e24290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876128


Hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade in the setting of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) is rare but life-threatening. Presentation in subacute cases can also be nonspecific, which can potentially delay diagnosis. A 60-year-old female with a history of heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough while on treatment with apixaban after a recent hospitalization for pulmonary embolism. Clinical presentation was consistent with multiple diagnoses, including pneumonia and heart failure exacerbation. However, there were several risk factors for hemopericardium with DOACs such as elevated creatinine, hypertension, elevated international normalized ratio (INR), and concomitant use of medications with similar metabolic pathways as apixaban. In addition, subtle findings on examination such as oximetry paradoxus and electrical alternans were crucial for an early diagnosis and management. In this case, we discuss key characteristics of hemopericardium with DOACs, as well as considerations on its management.

Hosp Pract (1995) ; 49(5): 307-324, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528104


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are associated with greater risk of both arterial and venous thromboembolic events.Pathophysiology and Clinical implications: This has been attributed to a florid proinflammatory state resulting in microvascular dysfunction, activation of platelets and procoagulant systems as well as possible direct endothelial injury. The associated morbidity and mortality of these events has prompted much speculation and varied anticoagulation and fibrinolytic strategies based on multiple criteria including disease severity and biomarkers. No clear definitive benefit has been established with these approaches, which have frequently led to greater bleeding complications without significant mortality benefit.Overview: In this review, we outline the burden of these thromboembolic events in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) as well as the hypothesized contributory biological mechanisms. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the major clinical studies on the topic, and end with a summary of major societal guideline recommendations on anticoagulation in COVID-19.

Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment