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2.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709612

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused an increase in antibiotic use in different settings. We describe the antibiotic prescribing prevalence, associated factors and trends, as well as concomitant bacterial infections in children hospitalized with COVID-19 or multisystemic inflammatory syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain.

3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e287-e293, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors causing critical disease in hospitalized children with COVID-19 and to build a predictive model to anticipate the probability of need for critical care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 52 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the need for critical care. We used a multivariable Bayesian model to estimate the probability of needing critical care. RESULTS: The study enrolled 350 children from March 12, 2020, to July 1, 2020: 292 (83.4%) and 214 (73.7%) were considered to have relevant COVID-19, of whom 24.2% required critical care. Four major clinical syndromes of decreasing severity were identified: multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (17.3%), bronchopulmonary (51.4%), gastrointestinal (11.6%), and mild syndrome (19.6%). Main risk factors were high C-reactive protein and creatinine concentration, lymphopenia, low platelets, anemia, tachycardia, age, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and low oxygen saturation. These risk factors increased the risk of critical disease depending on the syndrome: the more severe the syndrome, the more risk the factors conferred. Based on our findings, we developed an online risk prediction tool (https://rserver.h12o.es/pediatria/EPICOAPP/, username: user, password: 0000). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include inflammation, cytopenia, age, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction. The more severe the syndrome, the more the risk factor increases the risk of critical illness. Risk of severe disease can be predicted with a Bayesian model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
4.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1129-1132, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209813

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of thrombosis in children with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. In this multicentre national cohort of children with SARS-CoV-2 involving 49 hospitals, 4 patients out of 537 infected children developed a thrombotic complication (prevalence of 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.9%) out of the global cohort and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.3% to 2.8%) out of the hospitalised patients). We describe their characteristics and review other published paediatric cases. Three out of the four patients were adolescent girls, and only two cases had significant thrombotic risk factors. In this paediatric cohort, D-dimer value was not specific enough to predict thrombotic complications. Adolescence and previous thrombotic risk factors may be considered when initiating anticoagulant prophylaxis on children with SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and newborns is scarce. The objective of this study is to analyse clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and their newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during gestation. METHODS: Multicentric observational study of Spanish hospitals from the GESNEO-COVD cohort, participants in RECLIP (Spanish Network of Paediatric Clinical Assays). Women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR and/or serology during pregnancy, diagnosed and delivering during the period 15/03/2020-31/07/2020 were included. Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data was collected. RESULTS: A total of 105 pregnant women with a median of 34.1 years old (IQR: 28.8-37.1) and 107 newborns were included. Globally, almost 65% of pregnant women had some COVID-19 symptoms and more than 43% were treated for SARS-COV-2. Overall, 30.8% of pregnant women had pneumonia and 5 (4.8%) women were admitted to the intensive care unit needing invasive mechanical ventilation. There was a rate of 36.2% of caesarean sections, which was associated with pneumonia during pregnancy (OR: 4.203, CI 95%: 1.473-11.995) and lower gestational age at delivery (OR: 0.724, CI 95%: 0.578-0.906). The prevalence of preterm birth was 20.6% and prematurity was associated with pneumonia during gestation (OR: 6.970, CI95%: 2.340-22.750) and having a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR at delivery (OR: 6.520, CI95%: 1.840-31.790). All nasopharyngeal PCR in newborns were negative at birth and one positivized at 15 days of life. Two newborns died, one due to causes related to prematurity and another of unexpected sudden death during early skin-to-skin contact after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Although vertical transmission has not been reported in this cohort, the prognosis of newborns could be worsened by SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy as COVID-19 pneumonia increased the risk of caesarean section deliveries and preterm births.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cough/physiopathology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Gestational Age , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(10): 2576-2586, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713306

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the new coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), initially described in China, is challenging the health care systems of all countries. Every emerging disease raises many questions with a scarcity of answers since all its characteristics are still being discovered. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, most of the literature comes from adult patients. Children seem to be less affected. Pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 disease usually suffer a mild illness, with a low risk of complications, or mortality. Defining the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical as some national infection control decisions involving children, such as school closures or social distancing, will probably impact the dynamics of the virus. To aid in the knowledge of COVID-19 in children, this study presents an expert review of the literature published from 1 January to 28 May 2020, including peer-reviewed and preprint nonpeer-reviewed studies, along with some relevant articles afterward, summarizing ten key points that characterize the disease in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Humans
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