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1.
Platelets ; 33(4): 640-644, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713376

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events are frequent and associated with poor outcome in severe COVID-19 disease. Anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies are related to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and thrombus formation, but data on these antibodies in unselected COVID-19 populations are scarce. We assessed the presence of anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in prospectively collected serum from an unselected cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and evaluated if elevated levels could give prognostic information on ICU admission and respiratory failure (RF), were associated with markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, platelet activation, coagulation and fibrosis and were associated with long-term pulmonary CT changes. Five out of 65 patients had anti-PF4/polyanion reactivity with OD ≥0.200. These patients had more severe disease as reflected by ICU admission without any evidence of HIT. They also had signs of enhanced inflammation and fibrinogenesis as reflected by elevated ferritin and osteopontin, respectively, during the first 10 days of hospitalization. Increased ferritin and osteopontin persisted in these patients at 3 months follow-up, concomitant with pulmonary CT pathology. Our finding shows that the presence of anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in unselected hospitalized COVID-19 patients was not related to HIT, but was associated with disease severity, inflammation, and pulmonary pathology after 3 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Ferritins/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation , Osteopontin/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(3): 700-704, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has so far only been reported after adenovirus vector severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. OBJECTIVE: We report findings in a 25-year-old woman who presented with thrombocytopenia, venous thrombosis, elevated D-dimer levels, and high levels of platelet-activating antibodies to platelet factor 4-polyanion complexes 10 days after Gardasil 9 vaccination for human papillomavirus (HPV). The patient exhibited clinical and laboratory features in line with the recently defined VITT syndrome, described after adenoviral vector vaccination to prevent coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSION: We report a case of VITT following HPV vaccination. This should raise awareness of the possibility of VITT also occurring after other vaccines, not exclusively adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(7): 1813-1818, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca (AZD1222) is one of several vaccines introduced to provide immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Recently, more than 50 cases have been reported presenting a combination of thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and remarkably high levels of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/polyanion antibodies post-AZD1222 vaccination. Now linked to the vaccine, the condition is referred to as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. The European Medicines Agency still recommends vaccination with AZD1222, but several European countries have temporally paused and/or restricted its use because of the perceived risk of this severe side effect. Because there is no description of PF4/polyanion antibody testing in the clinical trials, knowledge about the prevalence of such antibodies in a vaccinated cohort is needed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate prevalence of thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in a population recently vaccinated with AZD1222. PATIENTS/METHODS: Four hundred and ninety-two health care workers recently vaccinated with the first dose of AZD1222 were recruited from two hospitals in Norway. Study individuals were screened for thrombocytopenia and the presence of anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies with a PF4/PVS immunoassay. Side effects after vaccination were registered. RESULTS: The majority of study participants had normal platelet counts and negative immunoassay. Anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies without platelet activating properties were only detected in six individuals (optical density ≥0.4, range 0.58-1.16), all with normal platelet counts. No subjects had severe thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSIONS: We found low prevalence of both thrombocytopenia and antibodies to PF4/polyanion-complexes among Norwegian health care workers after vaccination with AZD1222.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Europe , Health Personnel , Heparin , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Platelet Factor 4 , Polyelectrolytes , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(6): 1585-1588, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202119

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration is under way worldwide to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic. The newly developed vaccines are highly effective with minimal adverse effects. Recently, the AstraZeneca ChadOx1 nCov-19 vaccine has raised public alarm with concerns regarding the rare, but serious, development of thrombotic events, now known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). These thrombotic events appear similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, both clinically and pathologically. In this manuscript, the ISTH SSC Subcommittee on Platelet Immunology outlines guidelines on how to recognize, diagnose and manage patients with VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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