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Nieren- und Hochdruckkrankheiten ; 52(4):124, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231859

ABSTRACT

Objective: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in adult kidney recipients. After pediatric kidney transplantation there are only few data available - mostly limited to monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Method(s): Cellular and humoral immune responses have been monitored before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pediatric kidney recipients. After in vitro stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 antigen (spike glycoprotein) virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells (SARS-CoV-2-Tvis) have been identified by cytokine flow cytometry. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured by CMIA. Result(s): Immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was analyzed in a total of 30 pediatric kidney recipients (age at 1st vaccine dose 5.2 - 17.8 years, median 14.8 years;43% male;30/30 2 vaccine doses;23/30 3 vaccine doses). At time of vaccination 22 patients (73%) received a tacrolimus (Tac)-based immunosuppression combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF;n = 15) or everolimus (n = 6) or neither of them (n = 1);3 patients were exposed to cyclosporine A and 5 patients to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)- free immunosuppression. MMF was used in 18/30 patients. After 1st dose of mRNA vaccine SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detectable in 50% of pediatric kidney recipients, after 2nd dose in 78% and after 3rd dose in 88%. After the 2nd vaccine dose absence of humoral immune response (< 33.8 BAU/ml) was only found in case of MMF use (predominately combined with Tac). Peak IgG values (> 2,080 BAU/ml) were only detected in MMF-free regimens (6/7). Cellmediated response partially differed from humoral response, e. g., in some patients SARS-CoV2-Tvis were found despite lack of virus-specific antibodies. After 1st vaccine dose SARS-CoV-2-Tvis were detectable in 50% of pediatric kidney recipients, after 2nd dose in 92%. After 2nd vaccine dose absence or very low levels of SARS-CoV-2-Tvis (< 0.3 cells/mul) were only found in Tac-based immunosuppressive regimens, whereas higher levels (> 1.3 cells/mul) were exclusively detected in patients with MMFfree medication. Conclusion(s): After pediatric kidney transplantation humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were suboptimal, but more pronounced than in adult kidney recipients. Use of Tac and MMF was associated with impaired immune response to vaccination. SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral response corresponded only partially to cell-mediated response. Additional monitoring of SARS-CoV- 2-Tvis might be recommendable to improve assessment of the individual vaccine response and thereby to personalize the decision on the necessity of further vaccine doses.

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