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Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104770, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060330


Objective: Identify the association between stroke severity and the neurological outcome of an acute stroke using the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS). Study design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.Place and duration of study: Northwest hospital Hayatabad Peshawar. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done in the general plus stroke unit of the northwest hospital in Peshawar, KPK during Jan 2022 to July 2022.400 admitted patients diagnosed with acute stroke in the past three months were included for NIHSS assessment and were classified as mild, moderate, or severe stroke. After entering all of the data from the collection into SPSS version 16, the information was transferred to an Excel spreadsheet. To further assess the results, the researcher and statistician evaluated all of the cases, radiological findings, and laboratory test data. Results: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 400 individuals ranging from 30 to 90 years of age were divided into two groups: males and females. The survey was conducted by 49% of men and 51% of women. The stroke severity was assessed to be mild in 22% of cases, moderate in 49%, and severe in 29% of patients. As evaluated by the NIHSS, Patients with acute ischemic stroke were divided into four groups depending on their neurological outcomes: those who improved were 160 (40%), those who remained stable were 124 (31%), and those who deteriorated were 52 (13%), and those who died were 64 (16%). Patients with greater triglyceride levels were 88, while those with lower levels were 312. Acute stroke was also detected in 34% of patients with a covid history, 28% of patients who were covid positive, and 38% of patients who were covid free in this investigation. Conclusion: According to our findings, the NIHSS is a reliable scale for evaluating patients' neurological outcomes and determining the association between acute stroke severity and cognitive functioning (NIHSS).

BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779608


BACKGROUND: There was a lack of information about prognostic accuracy of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in forecasting cure among extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of SCC at various time points in forecasting cure among XDR-TB patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 355 eligible pulmonary XDR-TB patients treated at 27 centers in Pakistan between 01-05-2010 and 30-06-2017. The baseline and follow-up information of patients from treatment initiation until the end of treatment were retrieved from electronic nominal recording and reporting system. Time to SCC was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, and differences between groups were compared through log-rank test. Predictors of time to SCC and cure were respectively evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 226 (63.6%) and 146 (41.1%) patients respectively achieved SCC and cure. Median time to SCC was significantly shorter in patients who achieved cure, 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.47-3.53), than those who did not (median: 10 months, 95% CI: 5.24-14.76) (p-value < 0.001, Log-rank test). Patient's age > 40 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.632, p-value = 0.004), baseline sputum grading of scanty, + 1 (HR = 0.511, p-value = 0.002), + 2, + 3 (HR = 0.523, p-value = 0.001) and use of high dose isoniazid (HR = 0.463, p-value = 0.004) were significantly associated with early SCC. Only SCC at 6 month of treatment had statistically significant association with cure (odds ratio = 15.603, p-value < 0.001). In predicting cure, the sensitivities of SCC at 2, 4 and 6 months were respectively 41.8% (95%CI: 33.7-50.2), 69.9% (95%CI: 61.7-77.2) and 84.9% (95%CI: 78.1-90.3), specificities were respectively, 82.8% (95%CI: 76.9-87.6), 74.6% (95%CI: 68.2-80.4) and 69.4% (95%CI: 62.6-75.5) and prognostic accuracies were respectively 65.9% (95%CI: 60.7-70.8), 72.7% (95%CI: 67.7-77.2) and 75.8% (95%CI: 71.0-80.1). CONCLUSION: In forecasting cure, SCC at month 6 of treatment performed better than SCC at 2 and 4 months. However, it would be too long for clinicians to wait for 6 months to decide about the regimen efficacy. Therefore, with somewhat comparable prognostic accuracy to that SCC at 6 month, using SCC at 4 month of treatment as a prognostic marker in predicting cure among XDR-TB patients can decrease the clinicians waiting time to decide about the regimen efficacy.

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy