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1.
5th International Conference on Information and Communications Technology, ICOIACT 2022 ; : 82-86, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191905

ABSTRACT

monitoring the student's behavior is challenging for teachers in online learning, which is crucial to solving. It is because, in this pandemic period, online learning is required to minimize the spreading of coronavirus. However, research in this domain is not much. This study provides an alternative to this problem by classifying students' behavior in the e-Learning system, where the k-NN is applied to mine the students' behavior. In addition, this paper also tests the proper parameters to improve the performance of k-NN: k and distance. The experimental result shows that the best performance on the cross-validation technique is reached by Euclidean distance and, on the percentage-split, is achieved by distance-Manhattan. These are indicated by the highest accuracy level obtained by neighbors of five and 20 fold, about 96.9% on the cross-validation technique. On the percentage split technique, the highest accuracy level, about 95.3%, is reached by neighbors of four and split 50%. In this best performance, four students are misclassified on the cross-validation and six on the percentage split. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2175178

ABSTRACT

In this article the author name 'Tauseef Ahmad' was incorrectly written as 'Tauseef Ahmed'. © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2022.

3.
Journal of Ambient Intelligence & Humanized Computing ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175177

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s12652-022-03772-6.].

4.
12th International Conference on Virtual Campus, JICV 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161448

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the passage from a merely summative evaluation to a continuous evaluation, based on the educational challenge posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, it states that the adequacy of the pedagogical-didactic proposals and their organization in virtual classrooms provided teachers with a series of student monitoring tools. This motivated the teaching role of guide or educational facilitator, making the course administration methodology consistent with the evaluation methodology. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2150888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF drugs, such as infliximab, are associated with attenuated antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We aimed to determine how the anti-TNF drug infliximab and the anti-integrin drug vedolizumab affect vaccine-induced neutralising antibodies against highly transmissible omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.1, and BA.4 and BA.5 (hereafter BA.4/5) SARS-CoV-2 variants, which possess the ability to evade host immunity and, together with emerging sublineages, are now the dominating variants causing current waves of infection. METHODS: CLARITY IBD is a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study investigating the effect of infliximab and vedolizumab on SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients aged 5 years and older with a diagnosis of IBD and being treated with infliximab or vedolizumab for 6 weeks or longer were recruited from infusion units at 92 hospitals in the UK. In this analysis, we included participants who had received uninterrupted biological therapy since recruitment and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome was neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.4/5 after three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We constructed Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the risk of breakthrough infection in relation to neutralising antibody titres. The study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN45176516, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Sept 22 and Dec 23, 2020, 7224 patients with IBD were recruited to the CLARITY IBD study, of whom 1288 had no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and were established on either infliximab (n=871) or vedolizumab (n=417) and included in this study (median age was 46·1 years [IQR 33·6-58·2], 610 [47·4%] were female, 671 [52·1%] were male, 1209 [93·9%] were White, and 46 [3·6%] were Asian). After three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 50% neutralising titres (NT50s) were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab than in those treated with vedolizumab, against wild-type (geometric mean 2062 [95% CI 1720-2473] vs 3440 [2939-4026];p<0·0001), BA.1 (107·3 [86·40-133·2] vs 648·9 [523·5-804·5];p<0·0001), and BA.4/5 (40·63 [31·99-51·60] vs 223·0 [183·1-271·4];p<0·0001) variants. Breakthrough infection was significantly more frequent in patients treated with infliximab (119 [13·7%;95% CI 11·5-16·2] of 871) than in those treated with vedolizumab (29 [7·0% [4·8-10·0] of 417;p=0·00040). Cox proportional hazards models of time to breakthrough infection after the third dose of vaccine showed infliximab treatment to be associated with a higher hazard risk than treatment with vedolizumab (hazard ratio [HR] 1·71 [95% CI 1·08-2·71];p=0·022). Among participants who had a breakthrough infection, we found that higher neutralising antibody titres against BA.4/5 were associated with a lower hazard risk and, hence, a longer time to breakthrough infection (HR 0·87 [0·79-0·95];p=0·0028). INTERPRETATION: Our findings underline the importance of continued SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes, including second-generation bivalent vaccines, especially in patient subgroups where vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy might be reduced, such as those on anti-TNF therapies. FUNDING: Royal Devon University Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust;Hull University Teaching Hospital NHS Trust;NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre;Crohn's and Colitis UK;Guts UK;National Core Studies Immunity Programme, UK Research and Innovation;and unrestricted educational grants from F Hoffmann-La Roche, Biogen, Celltrion Healthcare, Takeda, and Galapagos.

6.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2142244

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Psycho-oncology is a cross-disciplinary and collaborative sub-specialty of oncology that focuses on the psychological, behavioral, ethical, and social aspects of cancer in clinical settings. The aim of this bibliometric study was to analyze and characterize the research productivity and trends in psycho-oncology between 1980 and 2021. Methodology: In May 2022, the Scopus (R) database was searched for psycho-oncology-related publications using predetermined search keywords with specific restrictions. Lotka's law was applied to check the authors' productivity, while Bradford's law was used to assess the core journals in this field. The data was analyzed for different bibliometric indicators in the Biblioshiny package, an RStudio tool for bibliometric analysis. Results: The initial search resulted in a total of 2,906 publications. Of which, 1,832 publications were included in the final analysis, published between 1980 and 2021. The analyzed publications were written by 7,363 authors from 74 countries and published in 490 journals. There has been a significant increase in psycho-oncology-related publications after 2010. The most productive year was 2021 (n = 365). The annual scientific growth rate was found to be 13.9%. The most relevant leading author in terms of publications was Luigi Grassi from the University of Ferrara, Italy (n = 42). Lotka's law found that the number of authors declined as the number of papers written increased. The core journals were Psycho-Oncology, Supportive Care in Cancer, and Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. The most frequently used author's keywords other than searching keywords were cancer, oncology, quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Recent psycho-oncology-related topics included mental health, COVID-19 infection in humans, people, pandemic, and tumor. The University of Sydney was the top-ranked institution. The leading country in terms of publications, citations, corresponding author country, and international collaboration was the United States of America (United States). The United States had the strongest collaboration with Australia and Canada. Conclusion: The research hotspots include mental health conditions and interventions in cancer patients. We identified international collaboration and research expenditure to be strongly associated with psycho-oncology research productivity. Researchers' collaboration, which is visible among developed countries, should be extended to low-income countries in order to expand psycho-oncology-related research and understanding.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(12):e0274718, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2140536

ABSTRACT

Developing countries have been facing difficulties in reaching out to low-income and underserved communities for COVID-19 vaccination coverage. The rapidity of vaccine development caused a mistrust among certain subgroups of the population, and hence innovative approaches were taken to reach out to such populations. Using a sample of 1760 respondents in five low-income, informal localities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan, we evaluated a set of interventions involving community engagement by addressing demand and access barriers. We used multi-level mixed effects models to estimate average treatment effects across treatment areas. We found that our interventions increased COVID-19 vaccine willingness in two treatment areas that are furthest from city centers by 7.6% and 6.6% respectively, while vaccine uptake increased in one of the treatment areas by 17.1%, compared to the control area. Our results suggest that personalized information campaigns such as community mobilization help to increase COVID-19 vaccine willingness. Increasing uptake however, requires improving access to the vaccination services. Both information and access may be different for various communities and therefore a "one-size-fits-all" approach may need to be better localized. Such underserved and marginalized communities are better served if vaccination efforts are contextualized.

9.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 21(4):883-892, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043411

ABSTRACT

Respiratory illness is one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Even though most of the ailments are treatable with normal care, respiratory-related mortality continues to increase year after year. The global situation is deteriorating as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic. Numerous Unani formulations are beneficial against a variety of respiratory disorders, but they must be clinically researched before they can obtain widespread acceptance in the modern world. At the moment, no antiviral medication is either available for each respiratory disease or is costly and not easy to use in pandemics like COVID-19 on large scale, although Unani medicines may be considered an option. Khamira Banafsha (KB) is a semi-solid blend of three dried flowers, Viola odorata L., Borago officinalis L., and Rosa damascena Mill and the distillate of Rosa damascena, and sugar. The components in this formulation are well-known and frequently utilized in the treatment of respiratory problems.The formulation has been used to treat a wide range of illnesses for decades. This review will discuss the pharmacology, ethnopharmacology, and repurposing of KB as an adjuvant or symptomatic treatment for Covid-19 illness.The chemical composition of the ingredients may be evaluated In-silico to identify their eligibility for Covid-19 disease symptomatic management.

10.
Gut ; 71:A36, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005346

ABSTRACT

Introduction Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with anti-TNF therapy exhibit attenuated humoral immune responses to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The gut microbiota and its functional metabolic output, which are perturbed in IBD, play an important role in shaping host immune responses. We explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolome could explain variation in anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination responses in immunosuppressed IBD patients. Methods Faecal and serum samples were prospectively collected from patients with IBD established on infliximab therapy (for >12 weeks) who were undergoing vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) immunoassays were used to measure antibody responses following two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine. Seroconversion was defined by a cut-off anti-S concentration of 15 U/ml, which correlated with 20% viral neutralization;anti-S antibody concentration of < 380 U/ml was indicative of poor response to vaccination. Patients with serological evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection were excluded from the analysis. Faecal calprotectin measurement, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and bile acid profiling with ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) were performed on faecal samples. Results Forty-five infliximab-treated patients were recruited (median age 40 [range 19-67];32 Crohn's disease, 13 ulcerative colitis;28 with concomitant immunomodulator therapy;six with prior infection). 14 patients (35%) had seroconverted after one dose of vaccine and 37 (95%) seroconverted after two doses. 18 patients (46%) had a poor response after two doses of vaccine. There was no association between faecal calprotectin and vaccine response (p=0.41). No differences between satisfactory and poor vaccine responders were noted in alpha or beta diversity of the gut microbiota. The faecal metabolome of satisfactory responders was enriched in the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (q=0.03). Trends were noted linking the short chain fatty acid butyrate with satisfactory response (P=0.01) and succinate with poor response (P=0.06). No significant differences in primary or secondary bile acids were found to associate with vaccine response. The butyrate-producing genus Roseburia was positively correlated with faecal butyrate abundance (q=0.03). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between gut microbiota function and variable serological response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients. Microbial metabolites including trimethylamine and butyrate may be important in mitigating anti-TNF-induced attenuation of the immune response.

11.
Journal of Crohn's & colitis ; 16(Suppl 1):i023-i025, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999022

ABSTRACT

Background Antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection or a single-dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine are impaired in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with anti-TNF compared to those treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody. Here we sought to determine if patients treated with infliximab have attenuated serological and T cell responses and an increased risk of breakthrough COVID-19 infection following primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Methods Anti-spike (S) receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody concentration in 2306 infliximab-treated patients were compared to a cohort of 1045 vedolizumab-treated patients. Our primary outcome was anti-S RBD antibodies 2 to 10 weeks after a second dose of the BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines. Secondary outcomes were anti-spike T cell responses, durability of vaccine responses and risk of breakthrough infections following two doses of vaccine. Results Anti-S RBD antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than in those treated with vedolizumab, following a second dose of BNT162b2 (567.3 U/mL [6.1] vs 4601.1 U/mL [5.3], p <0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (183.9 U/mL [5.0] vs 789.4 U/mL [3.5], p <0.0001) vaccines (Fig. 1). Vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine compared to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was independently associated with a 3.7-fold [95% CI 3.30 – 4.13] higher anti-S RBD antibody concentration (p < 0.0001) (Fig. 2). There were no significant differences in the magnitude of anti-spike T cell responses observed in infliximab- compared with vedolizumab-treated patients after one or two doses of either vaccine. Antibody half-life was shorter in infliximab- than vedolizumab-treated patients following two-doses of BNT162b2 (4.0 weeks [95% CI 3.8 – 4.1] vs 7.2 weeks [95% CI 6.8 – 7.6]) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (5.3 weeks [95% CI 5.1 – 5.5] vs 9.3 weeks [95% CI 8.5 – 10.2], p value < 0.0001). Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections were more frequent (5.8% (202/3467) vs 3.9% (66/1691), p = 0.0032) and the time to breakthrough shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab (p = 0.0023) (Fig. 3). Higher anti-S RBD antibody concentrations following a second dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine protected against breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection: overall, for every 10-fold rise in anti-S RBD antibody level we observed a 0.8-fold reduction in odds of breakthrough infection ([95% CI 0.70 – 0.99], p = 0.035). Conclusion Infliximab was associated with attenuated, less durable vaccine induced anti-S RBD antibody responses and a 50% increase in breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further follow-up is required to assess whether third primary doses can mitigate the effects of infliximab on anti-S RBD antibody responses.

13.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 19(1)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the intention and motivation of nurses and midwives to pursue their higher education considering several factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study were a 16-item online survey was distributed using a convenience sampling method to approximately 12,000 nurses and midwives between May - July 2021. RESULTS: A total of 513 eligible nurses and midwives participated in the study. Most of the respondents were females (76.61%), with a bachelor's degree (72.3%) and well experienced (11-15 years) (35.4%). Most nurses and midwives are highly motivated to pursue higher education (79.14%). The most motivating factor for the respondents is their professional goals (85.2%), While the most dissuading factor was the cost. Regarding COVID-19, about 28% of the respondents said that the COVID-19 pandemic has a negative effect on their desire to go for higher education. CONCLUSIONS: The nurses and midwives were highly motivated to pursue higher education regardless of their demographic status, available resources, and barriers. Furthermore, the eagerness of the nurses and midwives to pursue higher education, which is rooted in their desire to grow in their profession.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midwifery , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Midwifery/education , Motivation , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-652, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967353

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with anti-TNF therapy exhibit attenuated humoral immune responses to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The gut microbiota and its functional metabolic output, which are perturbed in IBD, play an important role in shaping host immune responses. We explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolome could explain variation in anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination responses in immunosuppressed IBD patients. Methods: Faecal and serum samples were prospectively collected from patients with IBD established on infliximab therapy (for >12 weeks) who were undergoing vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) immunoassays were used to measure antibody responses following two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine. Seroconversion was defined by a cut-off anti-S concentration of 15 U/ml, which correlated with 20% viral neutralization;anti-S antibody concentration of < 380 U/ml was indicative of poor response to vaccination. Patients with serological evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection were excluded from the analysis. Faecal calprotectin measurement, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and bile acid profiling with ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) were performed on faecal samples. Results: Forty-five infliximab-treated patients were recruited (median age 40 [range 19-67];32 Crohn's disease, 13 ulcerative colitis;28 with concomitant immunomodulator therapy;six with prior infection). 14 patients (35%) had seroconverted after one dose of vaccine and 37 (95%) seroconverted after two doses. 18 patients (46%) had a poor response after two doses of vaccine. There was no association between faecal calprotectin and vaccine response (p=0.41). No differences between satisfactory and poor vaccine responders were noted in alpha or beta diversity of the gut microbiota. The faecal metabolome of satisfactory responders was enriched in the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (q=0.03). Trends were noted linking the short chain fatty acid butyrate with satisfactory response (P=0.01) and succinate with poor response (P=0.06). No significant differences in primary or secondary bile acids were found to associate with vaccine response. The butyrate-producing genus Roseburia was positively correlated with faecal butyrate abundance (q=0.03). Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between gut microbiota function and variable serological response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients. Microbial metabolites including trimethylamine and butyrate may be important in mitigating anti-TNF-induced attenuation of the immune response.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-594-S-595, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967337

ABSTRACT

Background : Robust COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) responses are important for protective anti-viral immunity. Data are urgently needed to determine whether vaccineinduced immunity is impacted by commonly used immunosuppressive drug regimens in IBD. Methods: We prospectively recruited 447 adults (90 healthy controls and 357 IBD) at nine UK centres. The IBD study population was established (>12 weeks therapy) on either thiopurine monotherapy (n=78), infliximab (IFX) monotherapy (n=61), thiopurine & IFX combination therapy (n=70), ustekinumab (uste) monotherapy (n=56), vedolizumab (vedo) monotherapy (n=62) or tofacitinib (tofa) monotherapy (n=30). Participants had two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, BNT162b2 or mRNA1273 vaccines. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1 RBD) Ab concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti- SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) Ab assay, 53-92 days after second vaccine dose, in participants without prior infection, adjusted by age & vaccine type. Secondary outcomes included proportions failing to generate protective Ab responses (defined cut-off anti-S concentration 15 U/ml, which correlated with 20% viral neutralization). Results: Geometric mean S Ab concentrations (figure 1) were lower in patients treated with IFX (153U/ml;p<0.0001), IFX and thiopurine combination (109U/mL;p<0.0001), tofa (430U/ml;p<0.0001) and uste (561U/ml;p=0.013) compared to controls (1596U/ml). No differences in S Ab concentrations were found between controls and thiopurine monotherapy-treated patients (1020U/ml;p=0.62), nor between controls and vedo-treated patients (944U/ml;p=0.69). In multivariable modelling (figure 2), lower S Ab concentrations were independently associated with IFX (FC 0.10 [95% CI 0.07-0.14], p<0.0001), tofa (0.36 [95% CI 0.19-0.69], p=0.002) and uste (0.56 [95% CI 0.31-1.00], p=0.049), but not with thiopurine (0.77 [95% CI 0.54-1.11], p=0.17) or vedo (1.01 [95% CI 0.61-1.68], p=0.96). mRNA vaccines (3.67 [95% CI 2.72-4.96], p<0.0001) and older age (0.82 [95% CI 0.73-0.91], p=0.0003) were independently associated with higher & lower S Ab concentrations respectively. Protective Ab responses were generated by all thiopurine monotherapy, vedo, tofa and healthy control participants, but not by 11% of patients on IFX monotherapy, 13% on thiopurine & IFX combination therapy and 4% on uste. Conclusions : COVID-19 vaccine-induced Ab responses are significantly reduced in patients treated with IFX, or tofa, and to a lesser extent with uste. No significant reduction was seen in vedo or thiopurine monotherapy-treated patients. Our data suggest that 3rd primary or booster vaccine doses for IBD patients might be tailored to an individual's immunosuppressive treatment. (Figure Presented) (Figure Presented)

16.
Journal of Young Pharmacists ; 14(2):140-155, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1918025

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 world faces a respiratory pandemic named Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The term epidemic was coined by Hippocrates who is considered the father of Unani medicine which is based on four humours. In the Unani System of Medicine (USM) equivalent term for the epidemic is Wabā'. In classical Unani literature symptoms of Nazla-i-Wabā'iyya and Humma-i-Wabā'iyya closely resemble the symptoms of COVID-19. Major manifestations of this outbreak are cough, fever, headache, nausea, and breathlessness. This pandemic takes place due to a change in the quality of the surrounding air. We searched different databases electronically using the terms “COVID-19 or Coronavirus”, “Wabā or infectious disease”, “Unani immunomodulators”, ''Herbal immunomodulators'', ''Anti-viral herbal drugs'', Herbal fumigation and “Nazla-i-Wabā'iyya or Nazla Wabā'ī”. We also gone through different classical textbooks of USM available in the NRIUMSD library. We reviewed the concept of Wabā', its prevention, and management strategies available in USM. We also searched antiviral, immunomodulation, fumigation activities of Unani drugs. Unani physicians advocated general measures of physical distancing, health hygiene, isolation, quarantine, and immunomodulation. As a preventive measure, various immunomodulatory drugs like Asgandh, Aam, Babuna, Gilo, Satawar, and Kalonji and antidotes such as Tiryāq Wabā'i have been described in the literature. The ingredients of Tiryāq-i-Wabā'i include Aloe barbedensis, Crocus sativus, and Commiphora myrrha. Several fumigants like Sandal, Ood, Kafoor, Loban, and Jhau are also mentioned in the management of the epidemic. For symptomatic management various antiviral, antipyretic and antitussive drugs are described well. Many evidence-based studies have already been reported for single drugs and formulations used in the USM.The Khamira Marwareed possesses antiviral, cardiotonic, and immunomodulatory activity. Single drugs such as Khaksi, Asgandh, Adusa, Chiriata, and Zanjabeel possess antipyretic, immunomodulatory, antitussive, antibacterial, and antiviral activities respectively. The knowledge from classical Unani literature and scientific researches may be useful in the prevention and management of COVID-19 like epidemic diseases. This review article aims to find out the concept of the pandemic, prevention, and management strategies existing in the USM.

17.
Jpn J Stat Data Sci ; 5(1): 379-406, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914075

ABSTRACT

In urban areas, air pollution is one of the most serious global environmental issues. Using time-series approaches, this study looked into the validity of the relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 hospitalization. This time series research was carried out in the state of Kuwait; stationarity test, cointegration test, Granger causality and stability test, and test on multivariate time-series using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) technique. The findings reveal that the concentration rate of air pollutants ( O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , CO , and PM 10 ) has an effect on COVID-19 admitted cases via Granger-cause. The Granger causation test shows that the concentration rate of air pollutants ( O 3 , PM 10 , NO 2 , temperature and wind speed) influences and predicts the COVID-19 admitted cases. The findings suggest that sulfur dioxide ( SO 2 ), NO 2 , temperature, and wind speed induce an increase in COVID-19 admitted cases in the short term according to VECM analysis. The evidence of a positive long-run association between COVID-19 admitted cases and environmental air pollution might be shown in the cointegration test and the VECM. There is an affirmation that the usage of air pollutants ( O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , CO , and PM 10 ) has a significant impact on COVID-19-admitted cases' prediction and its explained about 24% of increasing COVID-19 admitted cases in Kuwait.

18.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 86:283-293, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1739276

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 since its discovery and spread have caused major disruption in the regular operation of the industries, schools, universities, business, and hospitals and eventually to the national economy of many countries. It is a highly contagious disease and spreading among communities at a very fast pace. Early detection of COVID-19 infected patients and quarantining them are few possible measures to restrict its spread. Persons infected by COVID-19 demonstrate many symptoms. However, these symptoms are somewhat similar to some of the common diseases like a common cold, viral fever, and body ache which we generally face in our day-to-day life. Hence, most of the medical experts confuse COVID-19 with some very common diseases, and when the actual cause is known by that time the situation becomes worse. In this light, this study proposed a new concept based on soft computing techniques to determine the exact symptoms responsible for COVID-19. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

19.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i023-i024, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722293

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection or a single-dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine are impaired in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with anti-TNF compared to those treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody. Here we sought to determine if patients treated with infliximab have attenuated serological and T cell responses and an increased risk of breakthrough COVID-19 infection following primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Methods: Anti-spike (S) receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody concentration in 2306 infliximab-treated patients were compared to a cohort of 1045 vedolizumab-treated patients. Our primary outcome was anti-S RBD antibodies 2 to 10 weeks after a second dose of the BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines. Secondary outcomes were anti-spike T cell responses, durability of vaccine responses and risk of breakthrough infections following two doses of vaccine. Results: Anti-S RBD antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than in those treated with vedolizumab, following a second dose of BNT162b2 (567.3 U/mL [6.1] vs 4601.1 U/ mL [5.3], p <0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (183.9 U/mL [5.0] vs 789.4 U/mL [3.5], p <0.0001) vaccines (Fig. 1). Vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine compared to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was independently associated with a 3.7-fold [95% CI 3.30 - 4.13] higher anti-S RBD antibody concentration (p < 0.0001) (Fig. 2). There were no significant differences in the magnitude of anti-spike T cell responses observed in infliximab- compared with vedolizumabtreated patients after one or two doses of either vaccine. Antibody half-life was shorter in infliximab- than vedolizumabtreated patients following two-doses of BNT162b2 (4.0 weeks [95% CI 3.8 - 4.1] vs 7.2 weeks [95% CI 6.8 - 7.6]) and ChAdOx1 nCoV- 19 (5.3 weeks [95% CI 5.1 - 5.5] vs 9.3 weeks [95% CI 8.5 - 10.2], p value < 0.0001). Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections were more frequent (5.8% (202/3467) vs 3.9% (66/1691), p = 0.0032) and the time to breakthrough shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab (p = 0.0023) (Fig. 3). Higher anti-S RBD antibody concentrations following a second dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine protected against breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection: overall, for every 10-fold rise in anti-S RBD antibody level we observed a 0.8-fold reduction in odds of breakthrough infection ([95% CI 0.70 - 0.99], p = 0.035). Conclusion: Infliximab was associated with attenuated, less durable vaccine induced anti-S RBD antibody responses and a 50% increase in breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further follow-up is required to assess whether third primary doses can mitigate the effects of infliximab on anti-S RBD antibody responses.

20.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i022-i023, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722292

ABSTRACT

Background: Robust COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) responses are important for protective anti-viral immunity. Data are urgently needed to determine whether vaccine-induced immunity is impacted by commonly used immunosuppressive drug regimens in IBD. Methods: We prospectively recruited 447 adults (90 healthy controls and 357 IBD) at nine UK centres. The IBD study population was established (>12 weeks therapy) on either thiopurine monotherapy (n=78), infliximab (IFX) monotherapy (n=61), thiopurine & IFX combination therapy (n=70), ustekinumab (uste) monotherapy (n=56), vedolizumab (vedo) monotherapy (n=62) or tofacitinib (tofa) monotherapy (n=30). Participants had two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, BNT162b2 or mRNA1273 vaccines. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1 RBD) Ab concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti- SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) Ab assay, 53-92 days after second vaccine dose, in participants without prior infection, adjusted by age & vaccine type. Secondary outcomes included proportions failing to generate protective Ab responses (defined cut-off anti-S concentration 15 U/mL, which correlated with 20% viral neutralization). Results: Geometric mean S Ab concentrations (figure 1) were lower in patients treated with IFX (153U/mL;p<0.0001), IFX and thiopurine combination (109U/mL;p<0.0001), tofa (430U/mL;p<0.0001) and uste (561U/mL;p=0.013) compared to controls (1596U/ml). No differences in S Ab concentrations were found between controls and thiopurine monotherapy- treated patients (1020U/mL;p=0.62), nor between controls and vedo-treated patients (944 U/mL;p=0.69). In multivariable modelling (figure 2), lower S Ab concentrations were independently associated with IFX (FC 0.10 [95% CI 0.07-0.14], p<0.0001), tofa (0.36 [95% CI 0.19-0.69], p=0.002) and uste (0.56 [95% CI 0.31-1.00], p=0.049), but not with thiopurine (0.77 [95% CI 0.54-1.11], p=0.17) or vedo (1.01 [95% CI 0.61-1.68], p=0.96). mRNA vaccines (3.67 [95% CI 2.72- 4.96], p<0.0001) and older age (0.82 [95% CI 0.73-0.91], p=0.0003) were independently associated with higher & lower S Ab concentrations respectively. Protective Ab responses were generated by all thiopurine monotherapy, vedo, tofa and healthy control participants, but not by 11% of patients on IFX monotherapy, 13% on thiopurine & IFX combination therapy and 4% on uste. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine-induced Ab responses are significantly reduced in patients treated with IFX, or tofa, and to a lesser extent with uste. No significant reduction was seen in vedo or thiopurine monotherapy-treated patients. Our data suggest that 3rd primary or booster vaccine doses for IBD patients might be tailored to an individual's immunosuppressive treatment.

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