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1.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 871-881, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge for medical students' learning and has become a potential stressor, with a profound influence on their psychological well-being. We aimed to determine the effect of the current pandemic on undergraduate medical students' learning. We also explored the association of their stress level with coping strategies, educational, and psychological variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional design study, and participants were the 1st to 5th year medical students. A self-administered questionnaire (18 items) and a well-known Kessler 10 Psychological Distress questionnaire (10 items) were used to collect the data related to perceived stress with an association of educational, psychological, and coping variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall stress was significantly higher (χ 2= 16.3; P=0.000) in female medical students, ie, (40%) as compared to the male students (16.6%), and was highest (48.8%) during the 3rd medical year. It was also noted that the most effective strategy, embraced by students to cope with the severe stress, was "indulging in religious activities" (OR= 1.08; P=0.81). Furthermore, 22.3% of students had perceived severe stress as they did not prefer online learning. Similarly, those students who have not believed or refused the online learning or disagree in "there is pleasure in the study due to COVID" they have significantly higher stress (χ 2=39.7; P=0.000) 21.5% mild, 17.8% of moderate, and 21.2% severe. CONCLUSION: We found that the COVID-19 pandemic has induced stress and changes in medical students' educational attitudes and strategies. The results exhibited that the predominance of stress is higher in females than males, and also more stress was perceived by the students during their transitional year, ie, 3rd medical year (from pre-clinical to clinical) and also the respondents who regularly did religious meditation were at lower levels of stress. COVID-19's influence on medical education and students' well-being will be felt at an extended level, which necessitates an appropriate plan for preparedness.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 768812, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792884

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study explored the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic effects on overseas Pakistani's residing in various parts of the world, particularly in China, Saudi Arabia (SA), and the United Kingdom (UK). Methods: This cross-sectional study was completed between November 2020 and April 2021. An online questionnaire was designed and circulated via various social media mediums to overseas Pakistani communities. The obtained data were statistically analyzed through SPSS version 19 for windows. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 542 overseas Pakistani participated in the current study. In total, 157 (29%) were females and 385 (71%) males. There were 174 (32.1%), 142 (26.45%), 117 (21.6%), and 109 (19.85%) participants from the UK, SA, China, and other countries respectively. Some participants, or their family members, 93 (17.2%), got infected with the COVID-19. About one-third, 165 (30.4%), of the respondents were afraid that their company would violate their contracts or lose their jobs or be paid less. The majority, 469 (86.5%), believed that the lockdown is increasing their psychological stress. More than half of the participants, 314 (57.9%), stated that the Pakistani embassy did not facilitate them in their country of stay. About one-third, 194 (35.8%), of the respondents faced visa-related issues. More than one-third of respondents, 221 (40.8%), faced health issues due to lack of physical activities during the lockdown. Males were afraid that their company would violate their contract, lose jobs, or be paid less than females (p < 0.001). Both genders had psychological stress and health issues because of the pandemic. The participants from SA faced more visa-related issues, and they were less satisfied with the efforts of the Pakistani embassy to facilitate them compared to the UK and China participants (p = 0.013). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted Pakistanis living in the UK, SA, China, and other parts of the world. They had health-related issues, visa problems and dissatisfaction with Pakistani embassy facilitations. Pakistanis living abroad require government assistance to resolve their issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S73-S78, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726819

ABSTRACT

In less than two decades, the world has experienced three outbreaks of deadly Coronaviruses, including the recent pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. COVID-19 posed an emergency of international concerns, and cases have been reported in more than 200 countries/regions that resulted in health, lives, and economic losses. China's economic growth is projected to fall to 5.6% this year, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) projected that policy investment and tax policies to implement $3.3 trillion and contributes further $4.5 trillion. IMF forecasts grow from 3.7% of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 to 9.9% in 2020. GDP ratio projected from 3.0% in 2019 to grow 10.7% in 2020, the US ratio expected to increase from 5.8% to 15.7%. France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (UK) each reported public sector funding programs totalling > 10% of their yearly GDP. There is a dire need for regional and international co-operation to extend hands to prevent further spreading of COVID-19.

5.
Psychology Research and Behavior Management Vol 13 2020, ArtID 1101-1102 ; 13, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1716729

ABSTRACT

Reply by the current authors to comments made by Jie Man Low Muhammad Zakwan Zakariya (see record 2021-08594-001) on the original article (see record 2020-84193-001). Authors appreciate the interest in their article and respond the commenters' concerns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320170

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) begun in December 2019 in China, causing a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Among raised questions, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews have been published on this matter. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies, and also case reports, were included and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 660 articles were retrieved (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening by abstract/title, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 19 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), with 32.8% presenting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock and 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients with fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). Conclusion: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and this group was associated with a CFR of over 13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure, and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(3): 420-444, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664325

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden. OBJECTIVE: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). FINDINGS: In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Neoplasms , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 726690, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643551

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of various public health measures in dealing with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. A stochastic agent-based model was used to simulate the progress of the COVID-19 outbreak in scenario I (imported one case) and scenario II (imported four cases) with a series of public health measures. The main outcomes included the avoided infections and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainty. The results indicated that isolation-and-quarantine averted the COVID-19 outbreak at the lowest ICERs. The joint strategy of personal protection and isolation-and-quarantine averted one more case than only isolation-and-quarantine with additional costs. The effectiveness of isolation-and-quarantine decreased with lowering quarantine probability and increasing delay time. The strategy that included community containment would be cost-effective when the number of imported cases was >65, or the delay time of the quarantine was more than 5 days, or the quarantine probability was below 25%, based on current assumptions. In conclusion, isolation-and-quarantine was the most cost-effective intervention. However, personal protection combined with isolation-and-quarantine was the optimal strategy for averting more cases. The community containment could be more cost-effective as the efficiency of isolation-and-quarantine drops and the imported cases increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(48): e27756, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Globally, congenital cataract remains one of the main causes of visual loss in children. This study was designed to plot the overall research output and evaluate some key bibliometric indicators in congenital cataracts research. METHODS: Publications on congenital cataracts were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. The published literature was searched using the keywords "congenital cataract" OR "congenital cataracts" in the title filed with document types and language restrictions. The data were exported into HistCite to analyze; publication year, top authors, countries, institutions, journals, keywords, and most cited studies. VOSviewer software was used to construct network visualization mapping. RESULTS: A total of 1427 publications (1903-2021) published in English language were included in this study. Over the past few decades, the total number of publications in congenital cataracts was found to be increased. The most productive year was 2016 (n = 72), while the most cited year was 1941 (1268 citations). The Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (Impact Factor: 4.799) was the most attractive journal with 161 publications, and the Molecular Vision (Impact Factor : 2.367) was the most cited journal with 1915 citations and 161.723 citations per year. The most productive country was the United States of America (USA) (n = 325), while the most active institute was Sun Yat-sen University, China (n = 36). The most prolific author was Yao K (n = 27). The most studied Web of Science category was ophthalmology (n = 852). The most widely used keyword was congenital (n = 1427). The most cited paper in congenital cataracts was "Congenital cataract following German measles in the mother, cited 1268 times. The USA and author keyword congenital cataract had the highest total link strength. CONCLUSION: These findings provide useful insights, current status, and trends in clinical research in congenital cataracts. This study can be used to identify future research areas and standard bibliography references for better diagnosis and disease control.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Periodicals as Topic , Publications , Bibliometrics , Cataract/congenital , Child , Databases, Factual , Efficiency , Humans
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 754121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506708

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess social media (SM) use, psychological distress, and knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among a sample of the population of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Multan, Pakistan between April and May 2020. Demographics details, SM use, psychological distress, and KAP on the COVID-19 were investigated. A total of 800 respondents were analyzed out of which 33.5% (n = 268) were women. No gender-wise difference was found in the terms of SM use and duration of SM use. Women were prone to have psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, and stress than men in the current COVID-19 pandemic. The mean knowledge score of men was significantly higher compared to women (18.69 ± 4.20 vs. 16.89 ± 3.04, p < 0.001), while the mean score of the attitude and practices on the COVID-19 prevention measures was significantly better in women (p = 0.012 and p < 0.001, respectively). The psychological problems such as anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression scores (p = 0.033) were higher among women than men. The stress score was also higher in women but not significantly higher (p = 0.079). The knowledge was significantly correlated with attitude, anxiety, depression, and stress. The regression analysis showed that the COVID-19-related KAPs are the predictors of psychological suffering of an individual. The female gender was positively associated with anxiety and depression. The SM use was the predictor of the stress. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the COVID-19 than female respondents, but women had significantly better attitudes and practiced the COVID-19 prevention measures. Gender is a significant determinant of psychological distress and KAP about the COVID-19. The government has already taken significant steps to limit the spread of the disease; however, much more effort is required to tackle this COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367930

ABSTRACT

Vaccine uptake could influence vaccination efforts to control the widespread COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known about vaccine acceptance in Saudi Arabia. The present study aimed to assess the Saudi public's intent to get vaccinated against COVID-19 and explore the associated demographic determinants of their intentions as well as the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was distributed to public individuals in Saudi Arabia between 25 December 2020 and 15 February 2021. Participants were asked if they were willing to get vaccinated, and the responses, along with demographic data were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to assess the relative risk ratio (RRR) for responding "no" or "unsure" versus "yes". Among 3048 participants (60.1% female, 89.5% Saudi), 52.9% intend to get vaccinated, 26.8% were unsure, and 20.3% refused vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy was significantly higher among females (RRR = 2.70, p < 0.0001) and those who had not been recently vaccinated for influenza (RRR = 2.63, p < 0.0001). The likelihood was lower among Saudis (RRR = 0.49, p < 0.0001), those with less than a secondary education (RRR = 0.16, p < 0.0001), perceived risks of COVID-19, and residents of the southern region (RRR = 0.46, p < 0.0001). The most often cited reasons for hesitancy were short clinical testing periods and concerns about adverse events or effectiveness. Vaccine hesitancy is mediated by many demographic factors and personal beliefs. To address vaccine-related concerns and amend deeply rooted health beliefs, communication should provide transparent information.

12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(11): 6508-6514, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307183

ABSTRACT

We explored the prevalence of insomnia, confirm the associated psychological factors and current coping strategies among undergraduate medical during their clinical years. This cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive study was conducted at the department of medical education, college of medicine, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The participants (n = 463) were the 3rd to 5th year, and intern medical clinical students. We collected responses about sleep, using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). We also used Kessler-10 (K10), Psychological Distress and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Items related to Coping strategies were also used from our previously published study and COVID-19 issues were explored using a self-developed questionnaire. According to the ISI ranking, 162 (34.9 %) of the participants had insomnia, among them 57.4% of females and 42.6% were males. Age groups between 22 and 25 have more sleeping disorder (43.2%) as compared to other age groups. 3rd-year students have more insomnia 36.41% as compared to other years. Individuals with insomnia symptoms were more likely (1.67 times higher) to be female students (OR = 1.67; P = 0.005) as compared to male students. A significantly high prevalence (3.37 times high) of insomnia was noted for those students or interns who have attended their clinical training irregularly as compare to regularly attending participants (OR = 2.32; P = 0.12) during COVID-19. Transition time i.e. year 3 of medical program was more stressful for the students and female students perceived stress and insomnia more than their male counterparts. It is important to address identified disorder early in order to reduce psychological morbidity and its harmful implications for medical students and young physicians.

13.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 675-685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266610

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate dental students' self-perception of mental well-being (MWB) and its effects on their clinical psychomotor skills (CPS) once they (or their family members) get infected with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional (n =268) study from a public dental college in Riyadh. We collected data on MWB and CPS. An 18-item online survey was used to collect the responses from the participants. The inter-rater reliability for the finalised survey came out to be 0.86. RESULTS: The participants (54.3%) who were infected with COVID-19 recorded that their CPS were significantly affected (almost 4 times higher) as compared to others (OR= 4.02; P=0.0004). However, 42.2% reported infection control measures at clinics resulted in bringing significant (OR=2.22, P=0.04) psychological upsets, for those who were infected with COVID-19. Participants (45.1%) also reported that they have difficulty in recalling old memories or information due to the COVID-19 pandemic; among them, 46.7% were the ones who (and/or any family member) were exposed to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The study spotlighted the extent of dental students' MWB and its significant effect on their CPS once (themselves or a family member) infected with COVID-19. Moreover, levels of infection control measures at clinics resulted in psychological upsets for dental students. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The issue is fundamental as participants enter the clinical workforce and face the ever-increasing demands of dental practice.

14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(26): 34211-34228, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227894

ABSTRACT

Disinfectants and sanitizers are essential preventive agents against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, the pandemic crisis was marred by undue hype, which led to the indiscriminate use of disinfectants and sanitizers. Despite demonstrating a beneficial role in the control and prevention of COVID-19, there are crucial concerns regarding the large-scale use of disinfectants and sanitizers, including the side effects on human and animal health along with harmful impacts exerted on the environment and ecological balance. This article discusses the roles of disinfectants and sanitizers in the control and prevention of the current pandemic and highlights updated disinfection techniques against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This article provides evidence of the deleterious effects of disinfectants and sanitizers exerted on humans, animals, and the environment as well as suggests mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. Additionally, potential technologies and approaches for the reduction of these effects and the development of safe, affordable, and effective disinfectants are discussed, particularly, eco-friendly technologies using nanotechnology and nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Animals , Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 863-875, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202178

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health problem. The SARS-CoV-2 triggers hyper-activation of inflammatory and immune responses resulting in cytokine storm and increased inflammatory responses on several organs like lungs, kidneys, intestine, and placenta. Although SARS-CoV-2 affects individuals of all age groups and physiological statuses, immune-compromised individuals such as pregnant women are considered as a highly vulnerable group. This review aims to raise the concerns of high risk of infection, morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women and provides critical reviews of pathophysiology and pathobiology of how SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially increases the severity and fatality during pregnancy. This article also provides a discussion of current evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Lastly, guidelines on management, treatment, preventive, and mitigation strategies of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions such as delivery and breastfeeding are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(5): 1296-1303, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132367

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with a range of respiratory complications. In the last two decades, three major outbreaks have been reported due to HCoVs including the current pandemic. In December 2019, a newly emerged virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan city, China. This paper presents a detailed review of the literature and discusses the uncertain spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using fuzzy set as classical set theory logic to measure uncertainty and vagueness of COVID-19 in China. Our findings show that both infection and death rate touched the peak (normal fuzzy sets) and have shown a decline. The graphs are not convex, which shows that there remains much uncertainty in the spread of COVID-19. Effective vaccines are clearly needed to control and prevent the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Uncertainty
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(8): 2367-2372, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123202

ABSTRACT

Background: In the last two decades the world has experienced many outbreaks of infectious diseases including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 was first reported in China and spread to more than 200 countries and territories. At present, there are no available treatment and vaccines for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the global research trends in COVID-19 vaccine.Methods: On January 12, 2020, a comprehensive search of documents on COVID-19 was conducted in the Web of Science Core Collection database. HistCiteTM and VOSviewer softwares are used for citations and visualization mapping.Results: A total of 916 documents authored by 4,392 authors and published in 376 journals were included in the final analysis. Majority of the retrieved documents consisted of articles (n = 372, 40.6%). The most prolific authors were Dhama K (n = 10, 1.1%) and Hotez PJ (n = 10, 1.1%). The most active institution was the University of Oxford (n = 24, 2.6%). The leading journal in COVID-19 vaccine was Human Vaccine & Immunotherapeutics (n = 43, 4.7%). The most frequently used keywords were COVID (n = 597, 65.2%), and vaccine (n = 521, 56.9%). Furthermore, visualization mapping shows that COVID-19 was the most co-occurrence author keyword. The United States of America (USA) was the most productive country, 352 (38.4%).Conclusions: This is the first bibliometric study that provides detailed information about published literature on the COVID-19 vaccine. Majority of the publications were published in developed countries. The findings may useful for researchers and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , Humans , Publications , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243526, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965456

ABSTRACT

This study intends to explore the predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of the Saudi population and we also assessed their approaches toward its overall impact. This online cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (SA). Participants were approached via social media (SM), and 2006 participants (953 [47.5%] females and 1053 [52.5%] males) were included in this study. SM was the leading source of information for 43.9% of the study participants. Most of the participants had various misconceptions such as "females are more vulnerable to develop this infection, rinsing the nose with saline and sipping water every 15 minutes protects against Coronavirus, flu and pneumonia vaccines protect against this virus." About one-third of participants (31.7%) had self-reported disturbed social, mental, and psychological wellbeing due to the pandemic. Many participants became more religious during this pandemic. Two-thirds of the study participants (68.1%) had good knowledge scores. Attitudes were highly positive in 93.1%, and practice scores were adequate in 97.7% of the participants. Participants' educational status was a predictor of high knowledge scores. Male gender and divorced status were predictors of low practice scores, and aged 51-61 years, private-sector jobs, and student status were predictors of high practice scores. Being Saudi was a predictor of a positive attitude, while the male gender and divorced status were predictors of a negative attitude. Higher education was a predictor of good concepts, while the older age and businessmen were predictors of misconceptions. Overall, our study participants had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices, but several myths were also prevalent. Being a PhD and a Saudi national predicted high knowledge scores and positive attitudes, respectively. A higher education level was a predictor of good concepts, and students, private-sector jobs, and aged 51-61 years were predictors of high practice scores. Study participants had good understanding of the effects of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
(J. Pure Appl. Microbiol., 1, 14).
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-666377
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