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1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2156821

ABSTRACT

Background The acceptance of vaccination against COVID-19 among parents of young children plays a significant role in controlling the current pandemic. A wide range of factors that influence vaccine hesitancy in adults has been reported worldwide, but less attention has been given to COVID-19 vaccination among children. Vaccine hesitancy is considered a major challenge in achieving herd immunity, and it is more challenging among parents as they remain deeply concerned about their child's health. In this context, a systematic review of the current literature is inevitable to assess vaccine hesitancy among parents of young children to ensure a successful ongoing vaccination program. Method A systematic search of peer-reviewed English literature indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and Web of science was performed using developed keywords between 1 January 2020 and August 2022. This systematic review included only those studies that focused on parental concerns about COVID-19 vaccines in children up to 12 years without a diagnosis of COVID-19. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 108 studies were included. The quality appraisal of the study was performed by Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results The results of 108 studies depict that vaccine hesitancy rates differed globally with a considerably large number of factors associated with it. The highest vaccine hesitancy rates among parents were reported in a study from the USA (86.1%) and two studies from Saudi Arabia (>85%) and Turkey (89.6%). Conversely, the lowest vaccine hesitancy rates ranging from 0.69 and 2% were found in two studies from South Africa and Switzerland, respectively. The largest study (n = 227,740) was conducted in Switzerland while the smallest sample size (n = 12) was represented by a study conducted in the USA. The most commonly reported barriers to childhood vaccination were mothers' lower education level (N = 46/108, 43%), followed by financial instability (N = 19/108, 18%), low confidence in new vaccines (N = 13/108, 12%), and unmonitored social media platforms (N = 5/108, 4.6%). These factors were significantly associated with vaccine refusal among parents. However, the potential facilitators for vaccine uptake among respondents who intended to have their children vaccinated include higher education level (N = 12/108, 11%), followed by information obtained through healthcare professionals (N = 9/108, 8.3%) and strong confidence in preventive measures taken by the government (N = 5/81, 4.6%). Conclusion This review underscores that parents around the globe are hesitant to vaccinate their kids against COVID-19. The spectrum of factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and uptake varies across the globe. There is a dire need to address vaccine hesitancy concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of approved vaccines. Local context is inevitable to take into account while developing programs to reduce vaccine hesitancy. There is a dire need to devise strategies to address vaccine hesitancy among parents through the identification of attributing factors.

2.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0199822, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137461

ABSTRACT

Accurate and early diagnoses are prerequisites for prompt treatment. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is even more crucial. Currently, choice of methods include rapid diagnostic tests and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using samples mostly of respiratory origin and sometimes saliva. We evaluated two rapid diagnostic tests with three specimen types using viral transport medium (VTM) containing naso-oropharyngeal (NOP) swabs, direct nasal and direct nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from 428 prospective patients. We also performed RT-PCR for 428 NOP VTM and 316 saliva samples to compare results. The sensitivity of the SD Biosensor Standard Q COVID-19 antigen (Ag) test kit drastically raised from an average of 65.55% (NOP VTM) to 85.25% (direct nasal samples), while RT-PCR was the gold standard. For the CareStart kit, the sensitivity was almost similar for direct NP swabs;the average was 84.57%. The specificities were >=95% for both SD Biosensor Standard Q and CareStart COVID-19 Ag tests in all platforms. The kits were also able to detect patients with different variants as well. Alternatively, RT-PCR results from saliva and NOP VTM samples showed high sensitivities of 96.45% and 95.48% with respect to each other as standard. The overall results demonstrated high performance of the rapid tests, indicating the suitability for regular surveillance at clinical facilities when using direct nasal or direct NP samples rather than NOP VTM. Additionally, the analysis also signifies not showed that RT-PCR of saliva can be used as an choice of method to RT-PCR of NOP VTM, providing an easier, non-invasive sample collection method. IMPORTANCE There are several methods for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the choice of methods depends mostly on the resources and level of sensitivity required by the user and health care providers. Still, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been chosen as the best method using direct naso-oropharyngeal swabs. There are also other methods of fast detection, such as rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which offer result within 15 to 20 min and have become quite popular for self-testing and in the clinical setting. The major drawback of the currently used RT-PCR method is compliance, as it may cause irritation, and patients often refuse to test in such a way. RDTs, although inexpensive, suffer from low sensitivity due to technical issues. In this article, we propose saliva as a noninvasive source for RT-PCR samples and evaluate various specimen types at different times after infection for the best possible output from COVID-19 rapid tests.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 973030, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142052

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 associated acute kidney injury (CAKI) has emerged as a potential intricacy during the management of patients. Navigating the rapidly growing body of scientific literature on CAKI is challenging, and ongoing critical appraisal of this complication is essential. This study aimed to summarize and critically appraise the systematic reviews (SRs) on CAKI to inform the healthcare providers about its prevalence, risk factors and outcomes. All the SRs were searched in major databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science) from inception date to December 2021. This study followed SR of SRs methodology, all the records were screened, extracted and subjected to quality assessment by assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews (AMSTAR-2). The extracted data were qualitatively synthesized and tabulated. This review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022299444). Of 3,833 records identified; 42 SRs were included in this overview. The quality appraisal of the studies showed that 17 SRs were of low quality, while 8 moderate and 17 were of high-quality SRs. The incidence of CAKI ranged from 4.3% to 36.4% in overall COVID-19 patients, 36%-50% in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), and up to 53% in severe or critical illness. Old age, male gender, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension were frequently reported risk factors of CAKI. The need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) was up to 26.4% in overall COVID-19 patients, and 39% among those having CAKI. The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was found independent predictor of death, where mortality rate among CAKI patients ranged from 50% to 93%. This overview of SRs underscores that CAKI occurs frequently among COVID-19 patients and associated with high mortality, need of RRT and adverse outcomes. However, the confidence of these results is moderate to low which warrants the need of more SRs having established methodological standards. Systematic review registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=299444], identifier [CRD42022299444].

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099909

ABSTRACT

Vaccination protects people from serious illness and associated complications.Conspiracy theories and misinformation on vaccines have been rampant during the COVID-19 pandemic and are considered significant drivers of vaccine hesitancy. Since vaccine hesitancy can undermine efforts to immunize the population against COVID-19 and interferes with the vaccination rate, this study aimed to ascertain the COVID-19-vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, views regarding vaccine mandates, and willingness to pay for vaccines among the general population. A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted (April-August 2021) among the adult population in six countries (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, India, Malaysia, Sudan, and Egypt). Participants were recruited using an exponential, non-discriminate snowball sampling method. A validated self-completed electronic questionnaire was used for the data collection. All the participants responded to questions on various domains of the study instrument, including conspiracy beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, and willingness to pay. The responses were scored according to predefined criteria and stratified into various groups. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. A total of 2481 responses were included in the study (Pakistan 24.1%, Saudi Arabia 19.5%, India 11.6%, Malaysia 8.1%, Sudan 19.3%, and Egypt 17.3%). There was a preponderance of participants ≤40 years old (18-25 years: 55.8%, 26-40 years: 28.5%) and females (57.1%). The average score of the COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy belief scale (C19V-CBS) was 2.30 ± 2.12 (median 2; range 0-7). Our analysis showed that 30% of the respondents were found to achieve the ideal score of zero, indicating no conspiracy belief. The mean score of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale (C19V-HS) was 25.93 ± 8.11 (range: 10-50). The majority (45.7%) had C19V-HA scores of 21-30 and nearly 28% achieved a score greater than 30, indicating a higher degree of hesitancy. There was a significant positive correlation between conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy (Spearman's rho = 0.547, p < 0.001). Half of the study population were against the vaccine mandate. Respondents in favor of governmental enforcement of COVID-19 vaccines had significantly (p < 0.001) lower scores on the C19V-CBS and C19V-HS scale. Nearly 52% reported that they would only take vaccine if it were free, and only 24% were willing to pay for COVID-19 vaccines. A high prevalence of conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy was observed in the targeted countries. Our findings highlight the dire need for aggressive measures to counter the conspiracy beliefs and factors underlying this vaccine hesitancy.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures have substantially affected educational processes around the globe, resulting in psychological distress among students. The mental health of students in higher education is of paramount importance, and the COVID-19 pandemic has brought this vulnerable population into renewed focus. In this context, the evaluation of students' mental health at educational institutes has gained invaluable popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to ascertain the psychological health and coping strategies among students from a higher education institute in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An online study instrument was used to assess anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9), post-traumatic stress disorder-PTSD (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R) and coping strategies (Brief-COPE). The severity of the psychological distress was classified as per the scoring criteria and correlated with demographics using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: Of 1074 students (age 21.1 ± 2.1 years), 12.9% and 9.7% had severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.50 ± 5.51 and 9.31 ± 6.72, respectively. About one-third (32%) of students reported suicidal ideation, with 8.4% students having such thoughts nearly every day. The average PTSD score was 21.64 ± 17.63, where avoidance scored higher (8.10 ± 6.94) than intrusion and hyperarousal. There was no association of anxiety, depression and PTSD score with the demographics of the study participants. Religious/spiritual coping (5.43 ± 2.15) was the most adoptive coping mechanism, followed by acceptance (5.15 ± 2.10). Male students were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with active copings, instrumental support, planning, humor, acceptance and religious coping. Substance use was the least adopted coping strategy but practiced by a considerable number of students. CONCLUSIONS: The long-lasting pandemic situation, onerous protective measures and uncertainties in educational procedures have resulted in a high prevalence of psychological ailments among university students, as indicated in this study. These findings accentuate the urgent need for telepsychiatry and appropriate population-specific mental health services to assess the extent of psychological impairment and to leverage positive coping behaviors among students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
7.
Chest ; 162(4):A1635-A1636, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060850

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenges in Lung Tumors SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Patients can have a variety of post Coronovirus induced disease (COVID) associated interstitial lung diseases (ILD) ranging from cystic lung disease to fibrinous organizing pneumonia. However, very little is known about malignancies that have been overshadowed by post COVID associated pulmonary changes. We present one such case of insidious invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung that was masked by post COVID related changes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70 year old female with COPD, systolic heart failure and significant tobacco use disorder presented with progressively worsening hypoxemic respiratory failure. She has had 4 hospitalizations in past year all for acute on chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure following COVID. She has been on Supplemental Oxygen 3L/min since her infection with SARS-COV2. Patient was found to have worsening bibasilar ground glass opacities (GGO) on CT of chest over the past 1 year since having COVID. She was treated with several rounds of steroids without any relief. Patient had a PET scan that showed a very avid left upper lobe consolidation. Given these worsening abnormalities and symptoms, she underwent bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy guided by the positive PET scan and fluoroscopy. However, during bronchoscopy she had copious secretions which were therapeutically cleared helping relieve some of patient's hypoxemia. All her cultures and Fungitell assay on bronchoalveolar lavage were negative. However, post biopsy pathology came back positive for Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma. Patient was treated with chemo and radiation therapy with good response against her malignancy and significant relief in her hypoxemia. DISCUSSION: COVID associated pneumonia is well known to cause chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure. Post COVID related pulmonary changes range from organizing pneumonia to fungal pneumonia. However, patients should start to recover with time as inflammatory changes resolve on CT scan with adequate steroids or anti-fungals. If patients continue to deteriorate then a prompt work-up that rules out other infections and even malignancies is warranted as seen in our patient. This case brings forth an important consideration for aggressively pursuing an adequate work-up in the face of worsening GGO on the CT and patient's continual deterioration due to her hypoxemic respiratory failure. Our patient was able to be adequately diagnosed with malignancy and was then started on chemotherapy that allowed for adequate control of her hypoxemic respiratory failure and helped improve her quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Post COVID related pulmonary changes can be from a variety of ILD and infections. However, clinician should be vigilant in considering malignancy as a possible etiology of post COVID related changes and initiate an adequate work-up to help evaluate for cancer that can be masked amongst post COVID related ILD. Reference #1: Beck KS, Sung YE, Lee KY, Han DH. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung: Serial CT findings, clinical features, and treatment and survival outcomes. Thorac Cancer. 2020 Dec;11(12):3463-3472. doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.13674. Epub 2020 Oct 5. Reference #2: Matsui T, Sakakura N, Koyama S, Nakanishi K, Sasaki E, Kato S, Hosoda W, Murakami Y, Kuroda H, Yatabe Y. Comparison of Surgical Outcomes Between Invasive Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Lung Adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020 Nov 24:S0003-4975(20)32001-4. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.09.042. Epub ahead of print. Reference #3: Lee MA, Kang J, Lee HY, Kim W, Shon I, Hwang NY, Kim HK, Choi YS, Kim J, Zo JI, Shim YM. Spread through air spaces (STAS) in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung: Incidence, prognostic impact, and prediction based on clinicoradiologic factors. Thorac Cancer. 2020 Nov;11(11):3145-3154. doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.13632. Epub 2020 Sep 25. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Danya Ahmed No relevant relationships by David Chambers No rele ant relationships by Jalal Damani No relevant relationships by Deon Ford No relevant relationships by Rachaita Lakra

8.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2042015

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and 30-day all-cause readmission and mortality between patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods The study was conducted at 16 hospitals across 3 geographically dispersed US states. The study included 6769 adults (mean age, 74 years;56% men) with cumulative 8989 HF hospitalizations: 2341 hospitalizations in COVID-19 pandemic (Mar- Oct 2020) and 6648 in the pre-COVID-19 (Oct 2018 – Feb 2020) comparator group. We used Poisson regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, multivariable logistic, and Cox regression analysis to determine whether pre-specified study outcomes vary by timeframes. Results The adjusted 30-day readmission rate decreased from 13.1% in pre-COVID-19 to 10.0% in the COVID-19 pandemic period (relative risk reduction 23%, number needed to avoid one additional readmission 33, hazard ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66 – 0.89). Conversely, all-cause mortality increased from 9.7% in pre-COVID-19 to 11.3% in the COVID-19 pandemic period (relative risk increase 16%, number of admissions needed for one additional death 62.5: HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 – 1.39). Despite significant differences in rates of index hospitalization, readmission, and mortality across the study timeframes, the disease severity, heart failure subtypes, and treatment patterns remained unchanged. Conclusions The findings of this large tristate multicenter cohort study of HF hospitalizations suggest lower rates of index hospitalizations and 30-day readmissions, but higher incidence of 30-day mortality with broadly similar use of heart failure medication, surgical interventions, and devices during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with pre-COVID-19 timeframe.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987782

ABSTRACT

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a major public health concern with an alarming global growth rate. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Saudi Arabia ranks seventh in the world and second in the Middle East for the largest estimated burden of diabetic cases. Evidence shows that pharmacist-led care programs can be beneficial for the effective treatment of diabetes mellitus. Current study was aimed to evaluate the impact of Pharmacist-Based Diabetic Intervention (PDIM) for Type 2 Diabetes patients on knowledge of the disease, adherence to medications and self-care practices during the first wave of COVID-19. A multi-arm pre-post study was conducted among type 2 diabetic patients from April to October 2021 in Sakaka, Saudi Arabia. Patients were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received the PDIM, whereas the control group only received the usual care. The pharmacist-based diabetes intervention model consisted of a diabetic educational module and medication improvement strategies. Furthermore, the intervention group also received specific telepharmacy services (calls, messages or emails) to address their medication-related problems, inquire about medication adherence and follow-up. At the end of six months, disease knowledge, self-care practices, and medication adherence score were analyzed. Furthermore, HbA1c and lipid profile were also compared. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. A significant difference was observed in the knowledge score between the intervention and control group (16.89 ± 2.01 versus 15.24 ± 2.03, p-value < 0.001). Similarly, self-care practices also improved in the intervention group as compared to the control group (4.39 ± 1.10 versus 3.16 ± 0.97, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, the medication adherence and HbA1c significantly improved during between the group analysis (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that pharmacist-based diabetes intervention model is effective in improving patients' knowledge of diabetes, self-care practices, medication adherence and glycemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Pharmacists , Prospective Studies
10.
International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design ; 13(9), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975017

ABSTRACT

Healthcare sector stocks are a very good opportunity for investors to obtain gains faster most of the time in a year and mostly during this COVID pandemic. Purchasing a healthcare stock of a certain company indicates that you hold a part of the company shares. Specifically, various examinations have been led to anticipate the development of financial exchange utilizing AI calculations, such as SVM and reinforcement learning. A collection of machine learning algorithms are executed on Indian stock price data to precisely come up with the value of the stock in the future. Experiments are performed to find such healthcare sector stock markets that are difficult to predict and those that are more influenced by social media and financial news. The impact of sentiments on predicting stock prices is displayed and the accuracy of the final model is further increased by incorporating sentiment analysis. © 2019 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). All rights reserved.

11.
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews ; 18(2):121-133, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963205

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has still been expressed as a mysterious viral infection with dramatic pulmonary consequences. Objectives: This article aims to study the radiological pulmonary consequences of respiratory covid-19 infection at 6 months and their relevance to the clinical stage, laboratory markers, and management modalities. Methods: This study was implemented on two hundred and fifty (250) confirmed positive cases for COVID-19 infections. One hundred and ninety-seven cases (197) who completed the study displayed residual radiological lung shadowing (RRLS) on follow-up computed tomography (CT) of the chest. They were categorized by Simple clinical classification of COVID-19 into groups A, B and C. Results: GGO, as well as reticulations, were statistically significantly higher in group A than the other two groups;however, bronchiectasis changes, parenchymal scarring, nodules as well as pleural tractions were statistically significantly higher in group C than the other two groups. Conclusion: Respiratory covid-19 infection might be linked to residual radiological lung shadowing. Ground glass opacities GGO, reticulations pervaded in mild involvement with lower inflammatory markers level, unlike, severe changes that expressed scarring, nodules and bronchiectasis changes accompanied by increased levels of inflammatory markers. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

12.
2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2021 ; : 1099-1102, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948739

ABSTRACT

Learning can be more efficient, effective and interesting if we can identify more about our students and know how they learn. Due to COVID-19, schools and colleges are offering online classes. It has a significant impact on students' success. Therefore, course modality and teaching pedagogy need to be taken into consideration for crafting and creating instructional experiences that make leaning appealing and effective. A number of innovative teaching methods such as active learning, hybrid learning, social learning and flipped classrooms have been proposed and tested. Practically, several methods together can be helpful for students. In this study, I conducted an experiment and identified effective learning methods for graduate level courses. According to this study, 94% students responded positively about this course design. The results also show that 83.5% students prefer face-to-face classes and 97% students find in-class problem solving effective to understand a concept better. Many courses incorporate team-based learning which is a proven approach. In this study, the benefits and limitations of team-based programming projects are identified as well as students' opinion in this regard. The results show that 85% students prefer team-based programming projects. Surprisingly 59.1% students mentioned all members do not contribute fairly evenly. This is a common problem in group works. So, small group size could be effective to overcome this problem. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884448

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are considered to be the most beneficial means for combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated excellent safety profiles in clinical trials, real-world surveillance of post-vaccination side effects is an impetus. The study investigates the short-term side effects following the administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among the general population with age ≥ 18 years, from five regions (Central, Northern, Eastern, Southern, and Western Regions) of Saudi Arabia for a period of 6 months (July to December 2021). A self-administered study instrument was used to record the side effects among the COVID-19 vaccine recipients. Of the total 398 participants (males: 59%), 56.3% received Pfizer and 43.7% were vaccinated with AstraZeneca. Only 22.6% of respondents received the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccines. The most commonly reported side effects were pain at the injection site (85.2%), fatigue (61.8%), bone or joint pain (54.0%), and fever (42.5%). The average side effects score was 3.4 ± 2.2. Females, young people, and Oxford-AstraZeneca recipients had a higher proportion of side effects. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine recipients complained more about fever (p < 0.001), bone and joint pain (p < 0.001), fatigue (p < 0.001), loss of appetite (p = 0.001), headache (p = 0.008), and drowsiness (p = 0.003). The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccinees had more pain and swelling at the injection site (p = 0.001), and sexual disturbance (p = 0.019). The study participants also reported some rare symptoms (<10%) including heaviness, sleep disturbance, fainting, blurred vision, palpitations, osteomalacia, and inability to concentrate. This study revealed that both Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca administration was associated with mild to moderate, transient, short-lived side effects. These symptoms corroborate the results of phase 3 clinical trials of these vaccines. The results could be used to inform people about the likelihood of side effects based on their demographics and the type of vaccine administered. The study reported some rare symptoms that require further validation through more pharmacovigilance or qualitative studies.

14.
Human Systems Management ; 41(2):303-313, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of the pandemic COVID-19 varied from one country to another. We aimed to describe the association between the global recovery and mortality rates of COVID-19 cases in different countries and the Human Development Index (HDI) as a socioeconomic indicator. METHODS: A correlational (ecological) study design is used. The analysis used data from 173 countries. Poisson regression models were applied to study the relationship between HDI and pandemic recovery and mortality rates, adjusting for country median age and country male to female sex ratio. RESULTS: During the first three months, the global pooled recovery rate was 32.4% (95% CI 32.3% - 32.5%), and the pooled mortality rate was 6.95% (95% CI 6.94% - 6.99%). Regression models revealed that HDI was positively associated with recovery beta = 1.37, p = 0.016. HDI was also positively associated with the mortality outcome beta = 1.79, p = 0.016. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that the positive association between the HDI and recovery rates is reflective of the pandemics' preparedness. The positive association between the HDI and mortality rates points to vulnerabilities in approaches to tackle health crises. It is critical to better understand the connection between nations' socioeconomic factors and their readiness for future pandemics in order to strengthen public health policies.

15.
Pathog Glob Health ; 116(5): 269-281, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662085

ABSTRACT

This study aims to estimate the prevalence and longevity of detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and T and B memory cells after recovery. In addition, the prevalence of COVID-19 reinfection and the preventive efficacy of previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. A synthesis of existing research was conducted. The Cochrane Library, the China Academic Journals Full Text Database, PubMed, and Scopus, and preprint servers were searched for studies conducted between 1 January 2020 to 1 April 2021. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality and pooled estimates of relevant outcomes were obtained in a meta-analysis using a bias adjusted synthesis method. Proportions were synthesized with the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation and binary outcomes using the odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 and Cochran's Q statistics and publication bias was assessed using Doi plots. Fifty-four studies from 18 countries, with around 12,000,000 individuals, followed up to 8 months after recovery, were included. At 6-8 months after recovery, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory remained high; IgG - 90.4% (95%CI 72.2-99.9, I2 = 89.0%), CD4+ - 91.7% (95%CI 78.2-97.1y), and memory B cells 80.6% (95%CI 65.0-90.2) and the pooled prevalence of reinfection was 0.2% (95%CI 0.0-0.7, I2 = 98.8). Individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had an 81% reduction in odds of a reinfection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.1-0.3, I2 = 90.5%). Around 90% of recovered individuals had evidence of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2, at 6-8 months after recovery and had a low risk of reinfection.RegistrationPROSPERO: CRD42020201234.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Lung Cancer ; 156:S46, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1597332

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have significantly impacted treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). KEYNOTE-189 demonstrated first-line pembrolizumab plus pemetrexed-platinum improves progressionfree survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, regardless of tumour PD-L1 expression [1]. Translating evidence from trials to real-world patient populations can be challenging as a significant proportion of patients in daily practice are often under-represented in randomised control trials due to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. We aimed to compare real-world data with outcomes from KEYNOTE-189. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 56 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without targetable mutations, treated with first line pembrolizumab, pemetrexed and platinum. Data were collected from electronic records between October 2018 and January 2021 in 2 London cancer centres. Results: Our cohort comprised 56 patients with median age 61 years, 75% with smoking history, 59% male and 41% female. PD-L1 expression was <1% in 57% of patients. Median follow-up was 8.7 months. All patients received at least one cycle and 53% completed 4 cycles of chemoimmunotherapy. Treatment was stopped early or pemetrexed maintenance treatment was omitted due to COVID-19 in 4 patients (7%). Median PFS was 7.1 months (range 1.8 to 26.3) and median OS was 8.7 months (range 1.8 to 26.3). OS at 12 months was reached by 21 patients (38%). Adverse events were observed in 30 patients (54%), including grade 3-5 adverse events in 15 patients (27%). Conclusions: Median PFS was similar in our cohort compared to KEYNOTE-189, but not as substantial as that reported in their updated analysis. OS was lower in our cohort, however a significant proportion of our patients recently commenced treatment and had shorter duration follow-up. Safety outcomes were superior in our cohort compared to KEYNOTE-189. Disclosure: No significant relationships.

17.
International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Intelligent Systems, ICETIS 2021 ; 322:623-632, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1590936

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, information about the pandemic has been exponentially increasing and spreading across various social media platforms. People across the globe have been affected in a way or another because of different aspects such as the increase in infected cases, death rate increase, financial difficulties, social distancing, being under lockdown, quarantine measures, and working remotely. With people heavily relying on social media platforms to share information more than ever, it is important to analyze their conversations to understand people’s sentiments and feelings during this time of crisis to find possible ways to cope with the pandemic. This paper presents a sentiment analysis study to analyze sentiments from Arabic tweets related to COVID-19 using multiple models. After data acquisition, text preprocessing steps are performed and Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) is used to generate feature vectors. Experiments are then done comparing multiple classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, Logic Regression, Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbor. A comparison of the models' performance was carried out using multiple evaluation metrics including Precision, Accuracy, Recall and F1 Score. The best performing model achieved an accuracy of around 84%. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580360

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the solution to overcome SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to determine the post-Sinopharm vaccine safety-profile and immunity through antibody titers. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from Egyptian participants who received two doses of Sinopharm vaccine. Data were divided into three parts, the first and second parts were to detect participants' post-first and second dose symptoms and practices, and the third for the results of IgG anti spike protein antibodies test and laboratory tests. Pain, redness, swelling at the injection site, headache, fatigue, and lethargy were the most common post-vaccine symptoms for both first and second doses. Most of the participants felt mild or no symptoms after vaccination. The symptoms started mostly during the first day post-vaccination and lasted for no more than two days. Forty-nine percent of the participants resulted in positive antibodies tests on day 18 post-vaccination. The average antibody level for vaccinated participants with past SARS-CoV-2 infection was much higher than that for non-past infected participants. These vaccines' administration methods need to be reevaluated by changing the dose, dose interval, adding a third dose, or mixing it with other vaccines with different techniques to improve their protection rates. Further studies are required to validate this finding.

19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(10):3076-3079, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1573199

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc throughout the world, with 150 million cases to date and over 3 million lives claimed worldwide Objectives: To assess the immediate side effects of Covid-19 vaccination among the people of Pakistan Study Design: Randomized, descriptive cross-sectional study Methodology: Present study was carried out using an online questionnaire by enrolling 17040 subjects. Inclusion/Exclusion criteria: All citizens of Pakistan over the age of 12, who were eligible for the COVID-19 vaccination were enrolled. Statistical analysis: Data was analyzed by SPSS software, version 25 in terms of frequencies and percentages. Results: In present study, results showed that 76% subjects were vaccinated. Among them 64% received Sinopharm, 30% Sinovac, 0.7% Pfizer, 0.5% Astrazeneca, 2.8% Moderna, 0.8% Cansino, 0.3% PakVac and 0.1% Sputnik V. Most participants (66%) suffered no symptoms post vaccination. Only 15% developed fever, 7% dizziness, 5% vomiting, 4% pain at injection site, 2% headache and 1% fatigue. After vaccination, 1% had a reinfection and 99% so far have not caught Covid-19. Among all participants, 87% found the vaccine safe, 7% were neutral and 5% found it unsafe. Conclusion: We concluded that most Pakistanis have received the Chinese vaccine i.e. Sinopharm. Majority individuals have experienced either no to mild or few moderate type of adverse effects following immunization irrespective of the age and gender that can be easily managed at home.

20.
International Journal of Information and Education Technology ; 11(8):356-367, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1317359

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruptions in every sector of human activity around the world. The education sector is no exception. Due to physical restrictions in accessing campus infrastructures, students and instructors at academic institutions have forcibly adapted to the new norm of virtual learning with mixed expectations and outcomes. There have been several studies conducted by educational practitioners since the pandemic began, which mostly focused on how academic constituents quickly adapt to virtual learning in a general sense. The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of virtual learning infrastructure and environment on student learning, specific to the civil engineering program at Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU). A survey was distributed to civil engineering students at PMU at the end of the fall 2020 term to gather perceptions about virtual learning and check the adequacy of online learning tools and associated environments. Student performance during virtual learning in terms of grade achievement was also investigated and compared with a normal situation. In general, it was found that students are satisfied with the current technology used to facilitate virtual learning. The anticipated outcomes of this study, including online technology readiness, curriculum adjustment, and teaching styles or methods, are to be used for virtual learning improvement should the current pandemic restriction extend to the end of the 2020–21 academic year and possibly far beyond. © 2021, International Journal of Information and Education Technology. All rights reserved.

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