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Lancet ; 401(10373): 281-293, 2023 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165973


BACKGROUND: The safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of molnupiravir, an oral antiviral medication for SARS-CoV-2, has not been established in vaccinated patients in the community at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. We aimed to establish whether the addition of molnupiravir to usual care reduced hospital admissions and deaths associated with COVID-19 in this population. METHODS: PANORAMIC was a UK-based, national, multicentre, open-label, multigroup, prospective, platform adaptive randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were aged 50 years or older-or aged 18 years or older with relevant comorbidities-and had been unwell with confirmed COVID-19 for 5 days or fewer in the community. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 800 mg molnupiravir twice daily for 5 days plus usual care or usual care only. A secure, web-based system (Spinnaker) was used for randomisation, which was stratified by age (<50 years vs ≥50 years) and vaccination status (yes vs no). COVID-19 outcomes were tracked via a self-completed online daily diary for 28 days after randomisation. The primary outcome was all-cause hospitalisation or death within 28 days of randomisation, which was analysed using Bayesian models in all eligible participants who were randomly assigned. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number 30448031. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2021, and April 27, 2022, 26 411 participants were randomly assigned, 12 821 to molnupiravir plus usual care, 12 962 to usual care alone, and 628 to other treatment groups (which will be reported separately). 12 529 participants from the molnupiravir plus usual care group, and 12 525 from the usual care group were included in the primary analysis population. The mean age of the population was 56·6 years (SD 12·6), and 24 290 (94%) of 25 708 participants had had at least three doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Hospitalisations or deaths were recorded in 105 (1%) of 12 529 participants in the molnupiravir plus usual care group versus 98 (1%) of 12 525 in the usual care group (adjusted odds ratio 1·06 [95% Bayesian credible interval 0·81-1·41]; probability of superiority 0·33). There was no evidence of treatment interaction between subgroups. Serious adverse events were recorded for 50 (0·4%) of 12 774 participants in the molnupiravir plus usual care group and for 45 (0·3%) of 12 934 in the usual care group. None of these events were judged to be related to molnupiravir. INTERPRETATION: Molnupiravir did not reduce the frequency of COVID-19-associated hospitalisations or death among high-risk vaccinated adults in the community. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health and Care Research.

COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Bayes Theorem , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Front Public Health ; 9: 731272, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775862


Background: Loose bowels is a clinical sign of gastrointestinal transport channel proteins, channels, and physical and chemical boundaries being harmed, prompting issues of water and electrolyte transport in the intestinal system. It is still considered as a major reason for emergency visits to hospitals in low-middle income countries. Zinc is a suitable treatment along with ORS for diarrhea. KAP surveys are usually conducted to collect information about general or specific topics of a particular population. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude, practices (KAP), and one health perspective regarding diarrhea among the participants from urban and rural populations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods: Data was collected by conducting a survey among residents of twin cities over a period of 6 months (from July 2020 to December 2020). The questionnaire compromised socio-demographic features and the degree of KAP with respect to diarrhea management and control. One way ANOVA tests were applied to observe the demographic relationship and various factors influencing knowledge, attitude, practices, and one health perspective about diarrhea. Results: A total of 338 subjects participated in the study. Female subjects were in the majority with 63% while the rest were male. A majority of the participants were between 15-25 years of age and 79.6% participants were un-married. The leading ethnic group was Punjabi with 52.7%; the lowest ethnic group were of Sindhi ethnicity with 8.6%. Age has a significant association with respect to knowledge and attitude. Religion has a significant association with respect to knowledge, practices, and one health, while education/qualification has an association with knowledge. The rest of the variables found no association with each other. Conclusion: It is concluded from the recent study that most residents of the twin cities of Pakistan knew about diarrhea and had a good attitude and practices toward it. Age, religion, and education have different roles regarding different diseases in the population of Pakistan. The current study has its limitations as well. Parts of the study were conducted in the capital of Pakistan which is more developed as compared to other areas of Pakistan. It would be better to explore the remote areas of Pakistan where basic amenities of life such as education, wealth, and unemployment are not available. It is important to create more awareness among community members. They should be aware how dangerous these viruses and bacteria can be. Other parts of Pakistan should also be explored for better understanding that will help in making a nationwide health policy.

One Health , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Ethnicity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 803-806, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625483


BACKGROUND: The community pharmacy-led Sore Throat Test and Treat (STTT) service in Wales allowed pharmacists to undertake a structured clinical assessment with FeverPAIN/Centor scores and a point-of-care test (POCT) for Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection. A new service model was temporarily agreed as a result of COVID-19, without routine use of POCT. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of removing the requirement for GAS POCT from a community pharmacy STTT service on antibiotic supply. METHODS: Analysis of STTT consultation data, obtained for two periods: November 2018 (date the service went live) to September 2019 (pre-pandemic); and November 2020 (date the new service model was introduced) to May 2021. RESULTS: For consultations eligible for POCT, the antibiotic supply rate increased from 27% (922/3369) (95% CI: 26%-29%) with the pre-pandemic service model (FeverPAIN/Centor + POCT) to 63% (93/147) (95% CI: 55%-71%) with the new model (FeverPAIN/Centor only); the percentage of patients who were not issued an antibiotic, despite their high clinical score, decreased from 56% (646/1154) to 9.3% (8/86). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data suggest that for every 100 STTT consultations with patients with a Centor score of ≥3 or a FeverPAIN score of ≥2, the use of POCT may spare up to 36 courses of antibiotics, increasing to 47 for patients with higher clinical scores, suggesting that the pre-COVID delivery model (FeverPAIN/Centor + POCT) is the optimal pathway and POCT in addition to clinical scores may result in fewer antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat symptoms. These findings have implications for STTT service delivery during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Pharmacies , Pharyngitis , Streptococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pyogenes
Fam Pract ; 39(3): 420-425, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510973


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid changes in demand and delivery of primary care services that could have led to increases in antibiotic prescribing. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on oral antibiotic dispensing rates in primary care in Wales using longitudinal analysis of monthly oral antibiotic dispensing data from 1 April 2018 to 30 April 2021. METHODS: We used All-Wales primary care dispensing data. We examined trends in oral antibiotic dispensing per 1,000 people for Wales and for individual Health Boards. We used interrupted time series analysis to estimate changes in trends pre- and post-April 2020 to assess the impact of the first and subsequent lockdowns. RESULTS: Between April 2020 and April 2021, antibiotic dispensing in Wales was lower compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019, with an average monthly decrease of 14.00 dispensed items per 1,000 registered patients (95% confidence interval 19.89-8.11). The overall prepandemic monthly antibiotic dispensing rate ranged from 48.5 to 67.4 antibiotic items per 1,000 registered patients. From the onset of the pandemic, it ranged from 40.3 to 49.07 antibiotic items per 1,000 registered patients. This reduction was primarily driven by narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Statistically significant reductions were also observed for antibiotics commonly dispensed for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Dispensing of antibiotics primarily used for urinary and skin infections remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Despite complexities of consulting during the COVID-19 pandemic in primary care we found no evidence of an increase in antibiotic dispensing during this time.

A considerable amount of work has been done in recent years to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way patients interact with their General Practitioners (GPs), with more consultations being undertaken remotely, either over the phone or online, with less face-to-face contact. It is not clear how these changes have affected antibiotic prescribing by GPs. We looked at the number of antibiotic items dispensed in Wales between April 2018 and April 2021 to assess the impact of the first lockdown. Fewer antibiotics were dispensed from April 2020 to April 2021, compared with the period before the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2018­March 2020). Dispensing of antibiotics used to treat chest, ear, and throat infections reduced following the start of the UK lockdown. There was no change in dispensing of antibiotics used to treat skin and urine infections. Reassuringly, dispensing of antibiotics that target several different types of bacteria (broad-spectrum antibiotics) did not increase during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care
Data Brief ; 32: 106234, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738747


The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global health emergency and has a huge impact on the health care workers, especially on their mental health. The dataset presented was an assessment of COVID-19 related knowledge, attitude, practices and its effects on the mental health of frontline healthcare workers in Pakistan. The data were collected using a snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed assessing sociodemographic characteristics (6 items), knowledge (11 items), attitude (5 items), practices (6 items), information sources (1 item) and psychological implications (12 items) and distributed using online tools. The dataset includes 476 healthcare workers in Pakistan. The dataset will help to prevent and curb the spread of COVID-19 among health workers and contribute to policymakers. Furthermore, our dataset provides detailed insights into different risk factors of psychological problems, and it may be served as the reference for various in-depth surveys.

J Community Health ; 46(3): 476-486, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640798


Exceptional precautionary measures have been adopted to stop the transmission and control of COVID-19 through the world and Pakistan is facing lockdown in this scenario. Public loyalty to precautionary measures is affected by their knowledge, attitude, risk factors and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19. The present study was conducted among the Pakistani residents to observe the knowledge, attitude, practices and risk factors towards COVID-19 outbreak in Pakistan. A questionnaire was designed, and a cross-sectional survey was conducted among participants of the study area. Participants were asked the questions regarding knowledge, attitude, practices and risk factors towards COVID-19. Data were analyzed by SPSS and t/F test and correlation was applied among the knowledge, attitude, risk factors and practices. A total of 1060 questionnaires were received. 1004 were included while 56 were excluded. The highest representation was from Punjab province (65.6%), female (63%) and age group of 21-30 years (62.1%). Most participants were single (85%), Muslim (99.4%), Urdu speaking (45.6%) and were graduates (51.5%). Most of the participants were students (52.9%) and were from economically middle-class families (40.8%). The knowledge was positively correlated with attitude and practices whereas negatively correlated with risk factors (P < 0.05). The attitude was negatively correlated with risk factor and positively correlated with practices. The risk factors and practices were positively correlated with each other. Health education program to improve the COVID-19 knowledge, attitude, practices and risk factors should be initiated to combat current health challenge.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult