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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884198

ABSTRACT

(1) Backgrounds and Objectives: Since its discovery, information about the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly. However, many issues remain unresolved. Coronaviruses are primarily transmitted through respiratory secretions. The possibility of transmission via donated blood transfusion deserves studying. This is the first study in Saudi Arabia to look at pre-vaccination donated blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody content as a marker for virus transmission via viral RNA positive blood and/or the potential therapeutic value of convalescent plasma. (2) Methods: A total of 300 blood samples were sequentially collected from unvaccinated donors who donated blood to the blood bank of Prince Mutaib Bin Abdulaziz Hospital in Sakaka, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia. Specific ELISA was used to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies. SARS-CoV-2 was detected using specific real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rRT-PCR). (3) Results: The prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was low (9%), whereas the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM was high (65%). Relevant demographics, anthropometrics, and lifestyle factors revealed significant associations (p < 0.05) between IgM-positivity only vs. age (age group 21-30 years), postgraduate education, no history of international travel, IgG-negativity, and absence of experience with COVID-19-like symptoms. Furthermore, there are significant associations (p < 0.05) between IgG-positivity only vs. age (age group 21-30 years), postgraduate education, and being a non-healthcare worker. All donors in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive group (n = 27) had previously experienced symptoms similar to COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and most of them (n = 24) showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM-positive test (p = 0.006). However, all the samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using rRT-PCR. (4) Conclusion: Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that donated blood is safe, with the added benefit of convalescent plasma rich in potentially neutralizing IgG and IgM against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24386, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856263

ABSTRACT

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a hematological emergency. This syndrome is characterized by metabolic derangements such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia, which result from rapid lysis of cells, especially rapidly growing tumors, after the initiation of chemotherapy. It is rarely seen in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and has not been previously reported to be triggered by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We report a case of a 45-year-old male, a known case of CML in the chronic phase, who presented with fatigue and abdominal pain for four days. Initial laboratory results were consistent with leukocytosis and positive COVID-19 antigen. The patient was started on intravenous fluids and hydroxyurea; however, over the next few days, he deteriorated quickly and developed oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI) with electrolyte disturbance consistent with TLS. The patient was shifted to the intensive care unit and underwent one sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) session and received rasburicase. Over the next few days, the patient started to improve and was discharged in good shape. Although CML rarely presents with TLS, physicians should monitor their patients closely, especially those who have concurrent COVID-19 infection, as this condition may result in lethal sequelae such as AKI, severe arrhythmias, and multiorgan failure. Additionally, early detection and treatment lead to a better prognosis.

3.
Intelligent Systems with Applications ; : 200080, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796610

ABSTRACT

Automation technology is developing intelligent health applications to facilitate patients by providing smart health solution. However, plethora of research is required in the autonomous robotics industry to provide smart solutions to hospitals.Hence, the proposed study aims to develop an intelligent automated infrastructure for hospitals, capable of performing several smart tasks in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The developed system will make food and medicine approachable by using a robotic arm on an autonomous robot. Furthermore, robotic arm can be locally controlled by the patient paramedic’s staff. The proposed intelligent robot will monitor patient’s condition by automatically monitoring the vitals conditions such as sleeping, stress, discomfort etc. This proposed system is very useful for diseases where close proximity can spread the disease, such as the covid-19 situation. Moreover, the automation will aid ICU patients by controllable bed functionality supported with patient’s EEG signals or remotely by staff. This research proposed LSTM based neural network for EEG classification and compare the results with other machine learning algorithms. The proposed LSTM network achieve 94% accuracy on self generated dataset. The achieved results are also compared with other machine learning models like SVM and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). The intelligent navigation feature is also introduced which enables the robot to move autonomously in ICU. In addition to this, it can also establish video conference set up between the patient, staff and family members. The robot can automatically alert the staff in an emergency and assist the patient through an intelligent chatbot.

4.
Cureus ; 14(4): e23863, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786265

ABSTRACT

Background and aims Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the first pandemic wave, SARS-CoV-2 had developed significant changes and mutations that resulted in the emergence of different strains. Each strain varies in its virulence and disease severity. Most reports have shown that the Omicron variant causes mild illness. Little is known about the impact of Omicron in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. We present patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who had infection with the Omicron variant of the SARS-CoV-2 and their outcomes. Materials and methods  Retrospective data from the records of the National Center for Cancer Care and Research from December 20, 2021, to January 30, 2022. Participants were adults over the age of 18 years with Omicron infection who had been diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia according to World Health Organization classifications from 2008 and 2016. Results Eleven patients with chronic myeloid leukemia had Omicron infection. All patients had a mild disease according to the World Health Organization classification of COVID-19 severity. The majority of patients were young males.  Conclusions In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, infection with the Omicron variant of the SARS-CoV-2 usually results in mild disease not requiring hospitalization.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316084

ABSTRACT

Background: and objectives : With the implementation of nucleotide-based vaccines (NBVs) in the COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, a wide controversy surrounding NBVs has become a heated subject of debate, and it did not spare healthcare workers and staff. The latter group has a powerful influence on the acceptance of NBVs by the general public. Hence, the aim of this study to assess the knowledge and attitude of healthcare workers regarding this new vaccine technology. Methods: : This is a cross-sectional study using an online survey involving health workers in Jordan. The survey assessed the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude about the safety and efficacy if NBVs. The study population was divided into two groups, educated and uneducated groups, whereby the former received a small educational pamphlet on NBVs. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between the response of the two groups. Results: A total of 330 health workers participated in this study. Respondents believed that RNA-based NBVs would be a safer option compared to DNA-based ones, with the educated group showing significant difference. The notion of NBVs being a form of gene therapy was more common among the educated group. The majority of the participants, particularly amongst the uneducated group, were concerned about undiscovered effects of NBVs. Respondents also agreed that NBVs must be reevaluated in phase 1 trials. As for efficacy, our study population agreed that these vaccines would prevent severe illness. Conclusions: Although healthcare workers have positive knowledge and attitude towards NBVs, misconceptions and skepticism exist and must be addressed with more education efforts.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316083

ABSTRACT

Background: With the implementation of nucleotide-based vaccines (NBVs) in the COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, a wide controversy surrounding NBVs has become a heated subject of debate, and it did not spare healthcare workers (HCW) and staff. HCW have a powerful influence on the acceptance of NBVs by the general public. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of healthcare workers regarding this new vaccine technology. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using an online survey involving health workers in Jordan. The survey assessed the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude about the safety and efficacy if NBVs. The study population was divided into two groups, educated and uneducated groups, whereby the former received a small educational pamphlet on NBVs. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between the response of the two groups. Results A total of 330 health workers participated in this study. Respondents believed that RNA-based NBVs would be a safer option compared to DNA-based ones, with the educated group showing significant difference. The notion of NBVs being a form of gene therapy was more common among the educated group. The majority of the participants, particularly amongst the uneducated group, were concerned about undiscovered effects of NBVs. Respondents also agreed that NBVs must be reevaluated in phase 1 trials. As for efficacy, our study population agreed that these vaccines would prevent severe illness. Conclusions Although healthcare workers have positive knowledge and attitude towards NBVs, misconceptions and skepticism exist and must be addressed with more education efforts.

9.
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 12(2):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1069710
11.
Eur J Dent ; 14(S 01): S56-S62, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Saudi Arabia, more than 100, 000 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, and more than 4,000 in Al Hofuf to date. Dental healthcare personnel are at a higher risk of COVID-19 due to their exposure to saliva, blood, and aerosol/droplet during their daily practice. Their perceptions of COVID-19 drive their behaviors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey to assess COVID-19 related perceptions and possible disparities between them. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science, version 23 (IBM SPSS). Descriptive analyses were performed using frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, mean and (± SD) for numerical variables. Bivariate analyses were assessed using t-test and one-way ANOVA, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: With a response of 75% (150), results showed that there were perceptional disparities: students and technical staff perceived more barriers to preventive measures compared to faculties with a mean difference of (-0.145 SD ± 0.580, p = 0.802, CI -1.29 / 1.00 and -2.433, SD ± 0.94, p = 0.010), respectively. This was also shown in threat perception with a mean difference of (2.525, SE ± 0.917, CI 0.71/4.34, p = 0. 0.007). Students perceived more threat than clerks did with a mean difference of (1.281, SE ± 0.569, CI - 0.16 / 2.41, p = 0.026), while clerks perceived less threat than the technical staff with a mean difference of (-2.790, SE ± 0.860, CI -4.49 /-1.09, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There was a clear disparity in the perceptions among the different categories of participants. More emphasis on the training and preparedness of the dental healthcare personnel is required.

15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1166-1169, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646100

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a recent outbreak in China and rapidly spread worldwide. Lung consolidation is the most common radiologic finding of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax has been rarely reported as a complication of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Early recognition and management are detrimental to the outcome. We here report three cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by pneumothorax. In addition, we present a brief literature review.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
IDCases ; 21: e00895, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621608

ABSTRACT

As the cases of COVID-19 are flooding around the world, atypical presentations are being recognized, making the diagnosis challenging. Gastrointestinal symptoms and mild abdominal pain are common. However, severe abdominal pain associated with COVID-19 warranting surgical evaluation has been rarely described; recognizing such presentations and differentiating them from a surgical abdomen is critical to effectively and safely manage COVID-19 patients. Here we present a case of a middle-aged gentleman who developed features resembling secondary peritonitis. Eventually, he was found to have COVID-19 and was managed conservatively. In this report, we discuss his management course, and we explore pertinent relevant literature.

17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 841-843, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596943

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with various clinical features, among which gastrointestinal manifestations such as nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and mild abdominal pain have been reported. Recognition of rare presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection has increased over time. These atypical and rare presentations may lead to difficulties in establishing the diagnosis in a timely manner; furthermore, they may lead to unnecessary investigations, extended hospital stays, adverse outcomes, and more strain on healthcare resources. We present three cases admitted to our hospital with a picture that mimicked an acute abdomen, necessitating surgical assessment and evaluation. All cases turned out to be SARS-CoV-2 positive and did not require surgical management. We discuss the management course, highlight the importance of abdominal symptoms in the setting of COVID-19, and discuss the implications of this association for medical practice amid the current pandemic in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Abdomen, Acute/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20115477

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCOVID-19 a pandemic declared by WHO, is the first in recent history pose challenges on public health. Health Belief Model is a psychosocial model explains and predicts health-related behaviours. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of the Sudanese on COVID-19-related preventive measures. MethodsA Cross-sectional study using online-questionnaire was conducted between 1st-16th April 2020 among Sudanese adults (aged [≥]18 years). We used a snowball sampling technique, starting from known professional and social media groups, and individuals and then was distributed on various internet platforms. The survey instrument was based on HBM constructs. ResultsSome 877 individuals participated in the survey with a mean age 37.8 (SD{+/-}11.94) more males, mostly having a university education, employed and residing in Khartoum. More than half of the participants scored high in almost all Health Belief Model constructs, except for benefits of hand hygiene. The findings show that the HBM constructs are correlated to each others as well as to other socio-demographic factors. Self-efficacy correlated negatively with susceptibility (r -0.084), while positively with severity, benefits of and barriers to hand hygiene, benefits and barriers to social distancing (r 0.117, r 0.347, r 0.202, r 0.396, r 0.276), respectively. ConclusionThe findings show that the HBM constructs are correlated to each others as well as to other socio-demographic factors. Self-efficacy must be taken into account as a strong changing factor to susceptibility and severity perceptions. Correlations found in this study might help drive behaviour-changing efforts.

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