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1.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591662

ABSTRACT

Digestive symptoms have been reported in an important proportion of children with COVID-19, and the clinical expression of critical patients with COVID-19 is thought to result from progressive increase of inflammation and an unusual trend of hypercoagulation. We report a newborn received with abdominal distension, green vomiting and imaging suggestive for enterocolitis. He had a close contact with COVID-19 and the PCR for SARS-CoV-2 came back positive. Despite the supportive measures, his condition deteriorated and a surgery was decided. The surgical exploration found an ischemic bowel. The therapeutic measures were ineffective as the child passed away a few hours after surgery despite the resuscitation treatment performed. The confirmed enterocolitis happening within the period of acute infection by SARS-CoV-2, the NEC was likely a manifestation of COVID-19.

2.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 34894221129018, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traditional jet ventilation requires the use of a catheter that is inserted either through an endotracheal tube or laryngoscope. Specially designed laryngoscopes with a built-in luer lock adapter to which the high-pressure tubing may be attached exist but are not always available. We present our experience with an adapter which allows connection of the high-pressure tubing to the suction side port of suitable laryngoscopes that is easily assembled using readily available materials in the operating room. METHOD: We designed a jet ventilator adapter using a high-pressure jet ventilation tubing assembly and a 3-way stopcock extension set which we have used for the past 13 years. A retrospective case series of all adult patients who underwent direct laryngoscopy and/or bronchoscopy using this jet ventilation adapter between January 2017 and August 2021 was performed. RESULT: A total of 100 consecutive patients underwent laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy using jet ventilation between January 2017 and August 2021 was identified. The mean age was 56.3 years, and the mean BMI was 31.2. The most common diagnoses were idiopathic subglottic/tracheal stenosis (46.4%), acquired tracheal stenosis (34.1%), and acquired subglottic stenosis (14.8%). The median duration of the surgical procedure was 53 minutes with an interquartile range of 23. The CO2 laser was used in all cases. There was no disconnection of the adapter, episodes of postoperative respiratory compromise, or extraluminal air on chest radiography for any of our cases. Oxygen saturations remained above 90% intraoperatively for all cases. CONCLUSION: Our simple jet ventilator adapter connects the jet ventilator to the suction side port of suitable laryngoscopes and eliminates the need for a jet ventilation catheter or specialized laryngoscope at a minimal cost.

3.
Children (Basel) ; 9(9)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a large gap between the needs of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the currently available services in Saudi Arabia. Services are often difficult to access, inconsistent in quality, incomplete, unsatisfactory, and costly. As such, there is a national need for expert consensus on the appropriate standards for the assessment and management of children on the autism spectrum. METHODOLOGY: A guideline development group (GDC) was formed by professionals representing all related specialties and institutions involved in the management of individuals on the autism spectrum in Saudi Arabia. They met on a regular basis over 21 months. The guideline development process consisted of five steps starting from reviewing existing guidelines and ending with discussing and writing this manuscript. A formal voting process was utilized and recommendations were discussed until a consensus was reached. RESULTS: There was consensus on the following: A specialized diagnostic assessment needs to be carried out by an experienced multidisciplinary team for children referred to assess for ASD. They should be assessed for medical etiology, their behavioral history carefully reviewed, and symptoms directly observed. Longitudinal assessments are encouraged to reflect the effects of symptoms on the individual's ability to function while with their family, among peers, and in school settings. An additional formal assessment of language, cognitive, and adaptive abilities as well as sensory status is essential to complete the diagnostic process. Interventions should be individualized, developmentally appropriate, and intensive, with performance data relevant to intervention goals to evaluate and adjust interventions. Target symptoms must be identified to address and develop monitoring systems to track change. CONCLUSION: ASD is a complex condition with widely varying clinical manifestations, thus requiring evaluation and intervention by a range of professionals working in coordination. Behavioral and environmental interventions are the key to optimal outcomes, in conjunction with medications when indicated for specific symptoms. Parental involvement in interventions is vital to sustaining therapeutic gains.

4.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 5(5): e365, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102126

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus itself is a known predictor of physical disability and impairment in activities of daily living (ADL); however, there are existing controversies about the factors explaining the association between diabetes and disability. Therefore, we assessed the possible determinants associated with ADL impairment among people with diabetes in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 480 people with diabetes aged between 50 and 70 years, and attended a tertiary level hospital in Dhaka city. For determining the ADL impairment, we used the Katz Index Scoring (6 = no impairment; <6 = impairment). Age, sex, educational attainment, household expenditure, body mass index, the status of diabetes (controlled or uncontrolled), hypertension and medication adherence to anti-diabetic drugs were included in the statistical models, and we defined any ADL impairment (Katz score <6) as an event. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the significance of relevant factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 59.0 (standard deviation [SD], 7.0) years. The majority of the participants (76.3%) had at least some sort of physical disability. In multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for all covariates simultaneously, age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.35 [1.20 to 1.75] per 1-SD increment), BMI (1.32 [1.08 to 1.21] per 1-SD increment), higher educational attainment (0.34 [0.09-0.90]), multi-morbidity (2.79 [1.48-5.25]) and uncontrolled diabetes (1.35 [1.10-1.45]) were independently associated with ADL impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Physical disability was common, and ADL impairment was associated with age, educational attainment, BMI, multi-morbidities and uncontrolled diabetes among the people with diabetes in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Disabled Persons , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged
5.
J Voice ; 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Injection medialization laryngoplasty is a commonly performed procedure for the management of glottic insufficiency. Among complications of this procedure is device failure, for which the literature is scarce. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of needle failure during injection laryngoplasty among members of the American Bronchoesophagological Association (ABEA). METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and subsequently sent to members of ABEA via electronic mail. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Twenty-four members (6.7%) completed the survey. Eighty three percent reported experience with needle failure; 59% of these were needle clogging, 22% needle twisting, and 19% needle tip fracture. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported needle failure during a percutaneous approach, and 48% reported using calcium hydroxyapatite during device failure. Twenty percent reported having to abort the procedure due to device failure. Twenty five percent of respondents experienced needle tip fracture that led to an airway or esophageal foreign body. CONCLUSIONS: Needle failure during injection laryngoplasty was reported by most respondents. Most commonly this was due to clogging or twisting which was managed by replacing the needle but in 25% of cases was due to a broken tip that results in an aerodigestive tract foreign body and aborting of the procedure in most cases.

6.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(5): 103602, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981430

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although treatment of Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) is commonly performed by otolaryngologists using a variety of surgical techniques, there is little published data on the postoperative management of patients. We sought to determine practice patterns among members of the American Bronchoesophagological Association (ABEA) after surgery for ZD. METHODS: An online questionnaire was designed via JotForm™ and subsequently sent to active members of the ABEA. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Twenty-three members (6.6 %) completed the survey. Most (73.9 %) were fellowship trained in laryngology and reported performing >5 procedures per year. Most laryngologists reported employing multiple techniques including transcervical (TC) (73.9 %), endoscopic stapling (ES) (65.2 %), endoscopic CO2 laser (EL) (56.5 %), and endoscopic harmonic scalpel (EH) (4.3 %). Postoperatively, 52.3 % of respondents placed patients in 23-hour observation after TC, 66.7 % after ES, 69.2 % after EL, and 100 % after EH. 47.1 % of respondents used standard overnight admission after TC, as compared to 13.3 % after ES, 23.1 % after EL and 0 % after EH. Postoperative esophagography was utilized by 70.6 % of respondents after TC, 20 % after ES, 38.5 % after EL, and 100 % after EH. A peroral diet was started postoperatively on the day of surgery by 26.7 % respondents after ES but not after any of the other techniques. CONCLUSION: Most laryngology trained respondents employ multiple techniques for the treatment of ZD including at least 1 endoscopic technique. Respondents were more likely to hospitalize patients after a transcervical than endoscopic approach. Postoperative esophagography was utilized in most patients after TC, but not after ES or EL. Most respondents admit patients for 23-hour observation and start a peroral diet on postoperative day 1 regardless of technique.


Subject(s)
Zenker Diverticulum , Carbon Dioxide , Endoscopy , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Zenker Diverticulum/surgery
7.
PeerJ ; 10: e13674, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789661

ABSTRACT

Background: Big data and data analysis methods and models are important tools in food security (FS) studies for gap analysis and preparation of appropriate analytical frameworks. These innovations necessitate the development of novel methods for collecting, storing, processing, and extracting data. Methodology: The primary goal of this study was to conduct a critical review of agricultural big data and methods and models used for FS studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 2010. Approximately 130 articles were selected for full content review after the pre-screening process. Results: There are different sources of data collection, including but not limited to online databases, the internet, omics, Internet of Things, social media, survey rounds, remote sensing, and the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. The collected data require analysis (i.e., mining, neural networks, Bayesian networks, and other ML algorithms) before data visualization using Python, R, Circos, Gephi, Tableau, or Cytoscape. Approximately 122 models, all of which were used in FS studies worldwide, were selected from 130 articles. However, most of these models addressed only one or two dimensions of FS (i.e., availability and access) and ignored the other dimensions (i.e., stability and utilization), creating a gap in the global context. Conclusions: There are certain FS gaps both worldwide and in the United Arab Emirates that need to be addressed by scientists and policymakers. Following the identification of the drivers, policies, and indicators, the findings of this review could be used to develop an appropriate analytical framework for FS and nutrition.

8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(3): 779-789, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780364

ABSTRACT

Patients with HIV or AIDS suffer from wide varieties of complications that are related to infection. The eye as an organ is not spared from HIV-related manifestations. The ocular manifestations can be the presenting sign of a systemic infection in an otherwise asymptomatic HIV-positive person. The disease can have adnexal, anterior segment, posterior segment, orbital and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. The objective of the study was to evaluate the ophthalmological manifestations among adult HIV infected patients of Bangladesh and co-relate the findings with CD-4+ T cell count. This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Community Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2013 to September 2015. Purposive sampling technique was applied to enroll the patients. Total 110 patients were enrolled regardless of their immunological status by inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant clinical evaluation including history & physical examinations, laboratory investigations and some ocular examinations like- visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, IOP, indirect ophthalmoscopy with +90D (diopter) and +20D were done. The age of the study population ranged from 20-58 years with mean±SD 37.63±8.16 years. Among the study population 67(60.9%) were male and 43(39.1%) were female. According to ART status, 58(52.7%) were on ART and 52(47.3%) were ART naive. The mean CD4+ T- cells count was 410±281.65 with minimum to maximum was 6-1266 cells/µl. Among them 53(48.2%) had HIV related ocular findings and 57(51.8%) had no HIV related ocular manifestation. In relation with CD+ T- cells count, highly significant relation was found with lower CD4+ T- cells count and ocular manifestation (p=0.001).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Eye Diseases , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Int J Plant Prod ; 16(3): 341-363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614974

ABSTRACT

Dryland agricultural system is under threat due to climate extremes and unsustainable management. Understanding of climate change impact is important to design adaptation options for dry land agricultural systems. Thus, the present review was conducted with the objectives to identify gaps and suggest technology-based intervention that can support dry land farming under changing climate. Careful management of the available agricultural resources in the region is a current need, as it will play crucial role in the coming decades to ensure food security, reduce poverty, hunger, and malnutrition. Technology based regional collaborative interventions among Universities, Institutions, Growers, Companies etc. for water conservation, supplemental irrigation, foliar sprays, integrated nutrient management, resilient crops-based cropping systems, artificial intelligence, and precision agriculture (modeling and remote sensing) are needed to support agriculture of the region. Different process-based models have been used in different regions around the world to quantify the impacts of climate change at field, regional, and national scales to design management options for dryland cropping systems. Modeling include water and nutrient management, ideotype designing, modification in tillage practices, application of cover crops, insect, and disease management. However, diversification in the mixed and integrated crop and livestock farming system is needed to have profitable, sustainable business. The main focus in this work is to recommend different agro-adaptation measures to be part of policies for sustainable agricultural production systems in future.

10.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406932

ABSTRACT

Water scarcity is a major environmental stress that adversatively impacts wheat growth, production, and quality. Furthermore, drought is predicted to be more frequent and severe as a result of climate change, particularly in arid regions. Hence, breeding for drought-tolerant and high-yielding wheat genotypes has become more decisive to sustain its production and ensure global food security with continuing population growth. The present study aimed at evaluating different parental bread wheat genotypes (exotic and local) and their hybrids under normal and drought stress conditions. Gene action controlling physiological, agronomic, and quality traits through half-diallel analysis was applied. The results showed that water-deficit stress substantially decreased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency (FV/Fm), relative water content, grain yield, and yield attributes. On the other hand, proline content, antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, POD, and SOD), grain protein content, wet gluten content, and dry gluten content were significantly increased compared to well-watered conditions. The 36 evaluated genotypes were classified based on drought tolerance indices into 5 groups varying from highly drought-tolerant (group A) to highly drought-sensitive genotypes (group E). The parental genotypes P3 and P8 were identified as good combiners to increase chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, relative water content, grain yield, and yield components under water deficit conditions. Additionally, the cross combinations P2 × P4, P3 × P5, P3 × P8, and P6 × P7 were the most promising combinations to increase yield traits and multiple physiological parameters under water deficit conditions. Furthermore, P1, P2, and P5 were recognized as promising parents to improve grain protein content and wet and dry gluten contents under drought stress. In addition, the crosses P1 × P4, P2 × P3, P2 × P5, P2 × P6, P4 × P7, P5 × P7, P5 × P8, P6 × P8, and P7 × P8 were the best combinations to improve grain protein content under water-stressed and non-stressed conditions. Certain physiological traits displayed highly positive associations with grain yield and its contributing traits under drought stress such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), proline content, and relative water content, which suggest their importance for indirect selection under water deficit conditions. Otherwise, grain protein content was negatively correlated with grain yield, indicating that selection for higher grain yield could reduce grain protein content under drought stress conditions.

11.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(4): 366-371, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical chaperones often play an important role during physical examinations, providing patient comfort and serving as medicolegal witness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare practices regarding chaperone use by plastic surgery attendings and trainees. METHODS: A voluntary survey was distributed to members of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons. The survey included a standardized set of questions regarding physician demographics, nature of practice training, and current practices pertaining to chaperone use. Data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of chaperone use. RESULTS: We received 167 responses, of which 107 (64.1%) were attendings and 60 (35.9%) were trainees. In total, 78.3% of the respondents were male and 21.7% were female. Routine use of chaperones was reported at 58.6%. Compared with plastic surgery trainees, attending surgeons were 12.8 times more likely to use a chaperone during sensitive examinations (P < 0.001). In addition, male respondents were 6.43 times more likely than their female counterparts to involve a chaperone during sensitive examinations (P < 0.001). Forty-eight percent of the trainees acknowledged receiving education regarding chaperone use, and this cohort was 7 times more likely to use a chaperone when compared with trainees who had not received chaperone instruction (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the wide variability of chaperone use among plastic surgery attendings and trainees. Integration and standardization of chaperone education within plastic surgery training may be an effective technique to promote this practice and lead to improved patient-provider clinical experiences.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Medical Chaperones , Surgeons , Surgery, Plastic , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Examination/methods , Surgery, Plastic/education , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
12.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(2): 601-615, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35225473

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited published data regarding the recent incidence trends of cancer in Iraqi Kurdistan. METHODS: The present study assessed the epidemiological estimates of cancer incidence, as well providing a projection of future cancer trends in the upcoming decade by analysing the population-based cancer registry between 2013 and 2019, in both the Erbil and Duhok governorates. A retrospective analysis was performed on data retrieved from the Medical Statistics Department at the Ministry of Health, Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). RESULTS: The total number of female cancer patients was higher in both governorates, and the total incidence of patients with cancer increased by over 2x between 2013 and 2019 in Erbil and Duhok, from 73 to 174 patients/100,000 individuals for women, and 36 to 85 patients/100,000 individuals for men. Analysis indicated that the percentage of patients with cancer is projected to increase by >2x in the current decade, from 3,457 cases to 4,547 and 4,449 cases in the Erbil governorate; and from 1,365 to 2,633 and 2,737 cases in 2028 based on LSTM and bi-LTSM analysis in the Duhok governorate. Lung cancer (LC) and female breast cancer (BC) were the most prominent types of cancers diagnosed since 2013 in both the Erbil and Duhok governorates. CONCLUSION: The striking pattern of trends for both present and future cancer incidence rates require urgent solutions and comprehensive efforts to control risk factors that promote the increasing incidence of cancer in these two KRG governorates.
.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iraq/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
13.
Clin Anat ; 35(4): 526-528, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218594

ABSTRACT

Human cadaveric donors are essential for research in the anatomical sciences. However, many research papers in the anatomical sciences often omit a statement regarding the ethical use of the donor cadavers or, as no current standardized versions exist, use language that is extremely varied. To rectify this issue, 22 editors-in-chief of anatomical journals, representing 17 different countries, developed standardized and simplified language that can be used by authors of studies that use human cadaveric tissues. The goal of these editor recommendations is to standardize the writing approach by which the ethical use of cadaveric donors is acknowledged in anatomical studies that use donor human cadavers. Such sections in anatomical papers will help elevate our discipline and promote standardized language use in others non anatomy journals and also other media outlets that use cadaveric tissues.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Tissue Donors , Cadaver , Humans
14.
Int J Biometeorol ; 66(5): 971-985, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149894

ABSTRACT

The impacts of climate change and possible adaptations to food security are a global concern and need greater focus in arid and semi-arid regions. It includes scenario of Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP-RCP8.5). For this purpose, two DSSAT maize models (CSM-CERES and CSM-IXIM) were calibrated and tested with two different maize cultivars namely Single Cross 10 (SC10) and Three Way Cross 324 (TW24) using a dataset of three growing seasons in Nile Delta. SC10 is a long-growing cultivar that is resistant to abiotic stresses, whereas TW24 is short and sensitive to such harsh conditions. The calibrated models were then employed to predict maize yield in baseline (1981-2010) and under future time slices (2030s, 2050s, and 2080s) using three Global Climate Models (GCMs) under CMIP5-RCP8.5 scenario. In addition, the use of various adaptation options as shifting planting date, increasing sowing density, and genotypes was included in crop models. Simulation analysis showed that, averaged over three GCMs and two crop models, the yield of late maturity cultivar (SC10) decreased by 4.1, 17.2, and 55.9% for the three time slices of 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, compared to baseline yield (1981-2010). Such reduction increased with early maturity cultivar (TW24), recording 12.4, 40.6, and 71.3% for near (2030s), mid (2050s), and late century (2080s) respectively relative to baseline yield. The most suitable adaptation options included choosing a stress-resistant genotype, changing the planting date to plus or minus 30 days from baseline planting date, and raising the sowing density to 9 m-2 plants. These insights could minimize the potential reduction of climate change-induced yields by 39% by late century.


Subject(s)
Acclimatization , Zea mays , Climate Change , Desert Climate , Genotype
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 167(6): 923-928, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104190

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) Assess overall COVID-19 mortality in ventilated patients with and without tracheostomy. (2) Determine the impact of tracheostomy on mechanical ventilation duration, overall length of stay (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) LOS for patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with planned chart review. SETTING: Single-institution tertiary care center. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 who were ≥18 years old and requiring invasive positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) met inclusion criteria. Patients were stratified into 2 cohorts: IPPV with tracheostomy and IPPV with intubation only. Cohorts were analyzed for the following primary outcome measures: mortality, LOS, ICU LOS, and IPPV duration. RESULTS: An overall 258 patients with IPPV met inclusion criteria: 46 (18%) with tracheostomy and 212 (82%) without (66% male; median age, 63 years [interquartile range, 18.75]). Average LOS, time in ICU, and time receiving IPPV were longer in the tracheostomy cohort (P < .01). Ability to wean from IPPV was similar between cohorts (P > .05). The number of deaths in the nontracheostomy cohort (54%) was significantly higher than the tracheostomy cohort (29%, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: While tracheostomy placement in patients with COVID-19 did not shorten overall LOS, mechanical ventilation duration, or ICU LOS, patients with a tracheostomy experienced a significantly lower number of deaths vs those without. One goal for tracheostomy is improved pulmonary toilet with associated shortened IPPV requirements. Our study did not identify this advantage among the COVID-19 population. However, this study demonstrates that the need for tracheostomy in the COVID-19 setting does not portent a poor prognostic factor, as patients with a tracheostomy experienced a significantly higher survival rate than their nontracheostomy counterparts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Female , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
16.
17.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961050

ABSTRACT

Iron (Fe) is required for most metabolic processes, including DNA synthesis, respiration, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis; however, Fe deficiency is common in arid regions, necessitating additional research to determine the most efficient form of absorbance. Nano-fertilizers have characteristics that are not found in their traditional equivalents. This research was implemented on Washington navel orange trees (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) to investigate the effect of three iron forms-nano (Fe-NPs), sulfate (FeSO4), and chelated (Fe-chelated)-as a foliar spray on the growth, fruiting aspects, and nutritional status of these trees compared to control. The highest values of the tested parameters were reported when the highest Fe-NPs level and the highest Fe-chelated (EDTA) rate were used. Results obtained here showed that the spraying of the Washington navel orange trees grown under similar environmental conditions and horticulture practices adopted in the current experiment with Fe-NPs (nanoform) and/or Fe-chelated (EDTA) at 0.1% is a beneficial application for enhancing vegetative growth, flower set, tree nutritional status, and fruit production and quality. Application of Fe-NPs and Fe-chelated (EDTA, 0.1%) increased yield by 32.0% and 25% and total soluble solids (TSS) by 18.5% and 17.0%, respectively, compared with control. Spraying Washington navel orange trees with nano and chelated iron could be considered a significant way to improve vegetative growth, fruit production, quality, and nutritional status while also being environmentally preferred in the arid regions.

18.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-5, 2022. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32623

ABSTRACT

The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.(AU)


O estudo revela a prevalência de uma espécie potencial de helmintos zoonóticos transmitidos por roedores, Hymenolepis diminuta, em roedores comensais capturados em áreas irrigadas e alimentadas pela chuva de Swat, Paquistão. Trezentos e cinquenta roedores (269 ratos e 81 camundongos) presos durante os estágios vegetativo, floração/frutificação e maturidade/colheita das safras foram estudados de 2011-2013. Ovos de Hymenolepisdiminuta foram identificados com base em sua forma, tamanho, cor e marcações na superfície da casca do ovo e três pares de anzóis embrionários. A prevalência geral de H. diminuta foi de 3,14% (n = 11/350). A maior prevalência 3,49% (n = 5/143) de H. diminuta foi observada na fase de colheita das lavouras, enquanto a menor 2,59% (n = 2/77) durante a fase vegetativa. A infecção foi maior nos homens 3,25% (n = 7/215) do que nas mulheres 2,96% (n = 4/135). Roedores adultos foram altamente infectados, enquanto nenhum subadulto foi encontrado infectado. A infecção foi maior em camundongos 3,70% (3/81) do que em ratos 2,69% (8/269), embora sem significância (p = 1,0000: 0,1250 a 32,00 CI). Ratos e camundongos parecem mostrar os reservatórios mais adequados hospedando H. diminuta um helmintos zoonótico. A presença desses roedores em todos os habitats possíveis pode atuar como um canal principal de transferência de parasitas através de vários habitats e pode representar um perigo para os humanos na área.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Muridae/parasitology , Hymenolepiasis/diagnosis , Hymenolepiasis/veterinary
19.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32490

ABSTRACT

Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.(AU)


As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Enterobius/parasitology , Enterobiasis/diagnosis , Enterobiasis/parasitology , Helminthiasis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases
20.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827266

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus species cause diseases in animals and humans. The prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Staphylococcus spp. in animals and human samples in the Minya Governorate, Egypt, were determined, and resistance- and virulence-associated genes were observed in multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Moreover, the antibacterial effect of carvacrol essential oil (EO) on the MDR isolates was studied. A total of 216 samples were aseptically collected from subclinically mastitic cow's milk (n = 100), sheep abscesses (n = 25) and humans (n = 91). Out of 216 samples, a total of 154 single Staphylococcus species (71.3%) were isolated. The most frequent bacterial isolates were S. aureus (43%), followed by S. schleiferi (25%), S. intermedius (12%), S. xylosus (12%), S. haemolyticus (4.5%), S. epidermidis (2%) and S. aurecularis (1%). Haemolytic activity and biofilm production were detected in 77 and 47% of isolates, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed a high degree of resistance to the most commonly used antimicrobials in human and veterinary practices. The mecA, vanA, vanC1 and ermC resistance genes were detected in 93, 42, 83 and 13% of isolates, respectively. Moreover, hla, icaA and icaD virulence genes were detected in 50, 75 and 78% of isolates, respectively. Carvacrol effectively inhibited the growth of all tested isolates at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.04% while a concentration of 0.03% inhibited 75% of isolates. Interestingly, some phenotypic changes were observed upon treatment with a carvacrol oil concentration of 0.03%. All the treated MDR Staphylococcus isolates changed from multidrug resistant to either susceptible or intermediately susceptible to 2-3 antimicrobials more than parental bacterial isolates. Real-time PCR was applied for the detection of the differential expression of mecA and vanC1 genes before and after treatment with carvacrol which revealed a mild reduction in both genes' expression after treatment. Staphylococcus spp. Containing MDR genes are more likely to spread between humans and animals. From these results, carvacrol EO is a promising natural alternative to conventional antimicrobials for pathogens impacting human health and agriculture due to its potential antimicrobial effect on MDR pathogens; even in sub-lethal doses, carvacrol EO can affect their phenotypic properties and genes' expression.

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