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1.
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research ; 13:S407-S411, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2217253

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties of ivermectin make it a wonder drug with a wide range of possible applications. It works against a variety of microorganisms, including viruses. Ivermectin has a wide range of antiviral effects, according to in vivo research in animal models. Because ivermectin is involved in a range of biological processes, it could be a promising therapeutic candidate for viruses such as COVID-19 and other positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. The study aims to analyze the awareness about the current status of usage of ivermectin in management of COVID among students studying in a private dental college. A study based on questionnaire was organized among students studying in a private dental college in Tamil Nadu. The subjects were asked a series of structural questions based on the usage of ivermectin in management of COVID. The questionnaire was prepared with 10 questions. 150 individuals completed the questionnaire;all of their answers were tallied in excel and imported into SPSS. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was performed. Excel was used to tabulate and enter the data, and the SPSS package software was used to analyze it. The study's threshold for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. From this study, we found that the students had limited knowledge about the usage of ivermectin for management of COVID. More studies should be conducted to widen the knowledge among the students about the current affairs of the world.

2.
Medicina ; 59(2):260, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2216597

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes respiratory disorders, with disease severity ranging from asymptomatic to critical manifestations. The current retrospective study compared the efficacies of different antiviral regimens used in patients suffering from severe COVID-19 disease from 19 January 2020 to December 2021 in a single center in Saudi Arabia. In total, 188 patients were enrolled in the current study, including 158 patients treated with different antiviral regimens, and 30 who did not receive any antiviral treatment. Different antiviral regimens, including favipiravir, remdesivir, oseltamivir, favipiravir/remdesivir, and favipiravir/oseltamivir were adopted. The effects of using different antivirals and antibiotics on the survival rate were evaluated, as well as the presence of comorbidities. Among all severely affected patients, 39/188 (20.7%) survived. Both age and comorbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were significantly correlated with high case fatality following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Remdesivir alone and the combination of favipiravir and remdesivir increased the survival rate. Surprisingly, both imipenem and linezolid helped in the deterioration of disease outcome in the patients. A negative correlation was detected between increased mortality and the use of favipiravir and the use of either imipenem or linezolid. Among the compared antiviral regimens used in the treatment of severe COVID-19, remdesivir was found to be an effective antiviral that reduces COVID-19 case fatality. Antibiotic treatment using imipenem and/or linezolid should be carefully re-evaluated.

3.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 18(1):e0276973, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214770

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is the most significant global health disaster of this century and the greatest challenge to humanity since World War II. One of the most important research issues is to determine the effectiveness of measures implemented worldwide to control the spread of the corona virus. A dynamic simulated Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach was adopted to analyze the policy response to COVID-19 in the ASEAN region using data from February 1, 2020, to November 8, 2021. The results of unit root concluded that the dependent variable is integrated of order one while the independent variables are stationarized at the level or first difference, and the use of a dynamic simulated ARDL technique is appropriate for this paper. The outcomes of the dynamic simulated ARDL model explored that government economic support and debt/contract relief for poor families is substantially important in the fight against COVID-19. The study also explored that closing schools and workplaces, restrictions on gatherings, cancellation of public events, stay at home, closing public transport, restrictions on domestic and international travel are necessary to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Finally, this study explored that public awareness campaigns, testing policy and social distancing significantly decrease the spread of COVID-19. Policy implications such as economic support from the government to help poor families, closing schools and public gatherings during the pandemic, public awareness among the masses, and testing policies must be adopted to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Moreover, the reduction in mortality shows that immunization could be a possible new strategy to combat COVID-19, but the factors responsible for the acceptability of the vaccine must be addressed immediately through public health policies.

4.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 74(3):6807-6822, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205946

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence is demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by animals, including humans. Artificial intelligence research has been defined as the field of study of intelligent agents,which refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. The techniques of intelligent computing solve many applications of mathematical modeling. The researchworkwas designed via a particularmethod of artificial neural networks to solve the mathematical model of coronavirus. The representation of the mathematical model is made via systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These differential equations are established by collecting the susceptible, the exposed, the symptomatic, super spreaders, infection with asymptomatic, hospitalized, recovery, and fatality classes. The generation of the coronavirus model's dataset is exploited by the strength of the explicit Runge Kutta method for different countries like India, Pakistan, Italy, and many more. The generated dataset is approximately used for training, validation, and testing processes for each cyclic update in Bayesian Regularization Backpropagation for the numerical treatment of the dynamics of the desired model. The performance and effectiveness of the designed methodology are checked through mean squared error, error histograms, numerical solutions, absolute error, and regression analysis. © 2023 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(13):3266-3279, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2203995

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women is one of the most group who are at high risk for COVID-19 infection. To protect them should keep them away from exposure for infection and enhance their knowledge and practice about self-protective measures towards COVID-19 pandemic. Aim(s): The study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of pregnant women regarding prevention of COVID-19. Subjects & Method: A descriptive study design was performed on 195 pregnant women in the antenatal clinic of Zagazig University Hospital using purposive sampling. Data were collected using three tools: an interview questionnaire, the pregnant women's knowledge questionnaire regarding COVID-19 and Pregnant women's practice questionnaire of self-protective measures in relation to prevention COVID-19. Result(s): mean age of pregnant women was 33.74+/-6.51 years old. About 63.7% of the studied pregnant women had adequate level of knowledge about COVID-19. Additionally, 58.6% of the studied pregnant women had satisfactory performed of self-protective measure against COVID-19. Furthermore, there was highly statistically significant difference of studied pregnant women regarding both total mean score of knowledge and practice (P= 0.000**). Conclusion(s): most of the studied pregnant women had adequate level of knowledge about COVID-19 as well as had satisfactory performed of self-protective measure against COVID-19 this supported the study's aims. Furthermore, there was highly statistically significant difference of studied pregnant women regarding both total mean score of knowledge and practice (P= 0.000**). Recommendations: Incorporates the educational program within outpatient clinics, providing a printed copy of the educational brochure in outpatient clinics for other pregnant women and their relatives. Also, antenatal heath care should have a plan to communicate online with pregnant women to manage such these crisis situations. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

6.
Cureus ; 14(11):e31522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled diabetes has appeared as one of the major risk factors for morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Alterations in dietary habits, physical inactivity, and inability to take advice from the physician are some of the contributing factors. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown in Saudi Arabia on medication accessibility, medication adherence, lifestyle, and quality of life of diabetes patients.

7.
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research ; 13(5):S228-S232, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201869

ABSTRACT

Ritonavir's pharmacodynamics raise questions regarding whether medication concentrations high enough to block the SARS-CoV-2 proteases can be obtained. Ritonavir may have a therapeutic benefit at any stage of the disease, although pharmacodynamic issues and the absence of clinical benefit data among hospitalized COVID-19 patients cast doubt on this claim. To study the awareness on current status of usage of ritonavir in the management of COVID among dental students. This study, which is survey-based, involved a sample of 100 individuals and was carried out on the website Survey Planet. The study included undergraduate and graduate dental students. The dental students were given a questionnaire containing 10 questions. Their responses were gathered. The number and percentage were used to summarize the data. Dental students from Chennai showed adequate knowledge of COVID-19 in the medical environment. Postgraduate students were more aware about the current status of usage of Ritonavir for COVID-19. This study demonstrates the urgent necessity for all health-care workers to regularly implement educational interventions and training program on infection control procedures for COVID-19. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

8.
Revista Romana de Cardiologie ; 32(3):165-166, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2198335

ABSTRACT

We present an interesting case and images of a patient with identified as having Brugada syndrome due to dynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes seen during high-grade fever in the context of an associated COVID-19 infection. We show serial ECGs demonstrating dynamic but unusual change from a Brugada Type-1 to a non-Type-1 Brugada pattern, then ultimately having ECG normalisation once the fever had been corrected with antipyretic medication. This case and set of images illustrate how ECG was helpful in successfully identifying a COVID-19 patient with underlying Brugada syndrome, thus enabling simple but appropriate management and risk-stratification. © 2022 Carlito Seroje Reyes et al.

9.
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine ; : 8850666221149956, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Members of racial and ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately impacted by coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). The objective of the study is to describe associations between race and ethnicity on clinical outcomes such as need for mechanical ventilation and mortality.

10.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2192698

ABSTRACT

Background: Face masks have been recommended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, evidence of the individual benefit of face masks remains limited, including by vaccination status. Method(s): As part of the COVID-19 Community Research Partnership cohort study, we performed a nested case-control analysis to assess the association between self-reported consistent mask use during contact with others outside the household and subsequent odds of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) during November 2020-October 2021. Using conditional logistic regression, we compared 359 case-participants to 3544 control-participants who were matched by date, adjusting for enrollment site, age group, sex, race/ethnicity, urban/rural county classification, and healthcare worker occupation. Result(s): COVID-19 was associated with not consistently wearing a mask (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.49;95% confidence interval [CI] [1.14, 1.95]). Compared with persons >=14 days after mRNA vaccination who also reported always wearing a mask, COVID-19 was associated with being unvaccinated (aOR 5.94;95% CI [3.04, 11.62]), not wearing a mask (aOR 1.62;95% CI [1.07, 2.47]), or both unvaccinated and not wearing a mask (aOR 9.07;95% CI [4.81, 17.09]). Conclusion(s): Our findings indicate that consistent mask wearing can complement vaccination to reduce the risk of COVID-19. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

11.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery ; 60(10):e61-e62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2176818

ABSTRACT

Introduction/Aims: The conventional route to being a Maxillofacial surgeon is a training programme of five years, undertaking the 'exit' exam and being awarded a certificate of completion of training (CCT). Whilst for many the next stage would be attaining and undertaking a consultant post immediately or whilst utilising their grace period, some trainees consider the opportunities afforded by a fellowship. This can be both a formal and informal opportunity to address training deficiencies or to consolidate and acquire new skills prior to a definitive consultant post. Material(s) and Method(s): As part of my fellowship I chose to go to Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand during the COVID-19 pandemic. I was afforded the opportunity to consolidate skills I had acquired since gaining my CCT and provide general and specialist maxillofacial services in the Waikato region which covers a population of 425k over 21,000km2. This fellowship provided me with an amazing opportunity to practice maxillofacial surgery in an area with a breadth of trauma by virtue of being a major trauma centre. Results/Statistics: I would strongly recommend the opportunity to engage in a fellowship overseas as it exposed me to a healthcare service model I had not previously encountered. New Zealand has a strong public system which is well supported by their Accident Compensation Corporation scheme. This covers all healthcare costs associated with injury from an accident, irrespective of the mechanism. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance: My experience was superb both clinically, professionally and socially and it definitely supported me up for my consultant practice on returning to the UK. Copyright © 2022

12.
Rawal Medical Journal ; 47(4):996-1000, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168808

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of online dental education amid COVID-19 pandemic in undergraduate dental students of our institutions. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out from November-December 2020, and included 239 undergraduate students at dental institutes of Sindh, Pakistan. An online questionnaire link was sent to dental students through emails and social media platforms. SPSS 25 was used for data analysis. Result(s): Out of total 239 participants, 101 (42.25%) were from private and 138 (57.74%) from public teaching institutes. Fifty-eight (24.3%) students were in first professional, 36 (15.1%) in second, 22(9.2%) in third and 123 (51.5%) in fourth year BDS. Online platforms for teaching used were Zoom by 133 (55.6%), Google classroom by 54 (22.6%) and Microsoft team by 52 (21.8%) students. Majority, 168 (70.3%) participants believed online teaching was inadequate to train and prepare for actual clinical scenarios. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) amongst students' perception regarding online teaching motivation, methods, impact, assessment, teacher's competency and feedback evaluation. Conclusion(s): Undergraduate students were facing technical difficulties with online teaching in the region. Although they felt motivated with online teaching, but believed that teachers were not trained for online education. Students reported that online teaching was less intimidating than face to face learning but it is difficult to interact in online lectures. Majority of participants felt that lack of training and physical teaching might affect their future growth of training and preparation for actual clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2022, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

13.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy ; 41(12):2344-2350, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2167406

ABSTRACT

To prevent or reduce the incidence and prevalence of infections, infection prevention and con-trol strategies are utilized. Antibiotic stewardship programs are also utilized to avoid antimicrobial-related toxicity, lower the costs of inappropriate antimicrobial usage, and reduce health-care-associated infections. The present study aimed to describe the effect of implementing infection control unit and antimicrobial use committee policies and guidelines in reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Data for all infected cases confirmed by an infection disease specialist between 2019 and 2021 was exported. The informa-tion was gathered from the reports written by the infection control unit. Central line-associated bloodstream infection rate was decreased from 1.15 per 1000 central line days in 2019 to 0 per 1000 central line days in 2021, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections rate decreased from 1.01 per 1000 urinary catheter days in 2019 to 0 per 1000 urinary catheter days in 2021, ventilator-associated pneumonia rate decreased from 2.11 per 1000 ventilator days in 2019 to 0 per 1000 ventilator days in 2019, surgical site infection rate decreased from 0.41% un 2019 to 0.2% in 2021, the rate of MDRO was decreased from 3.95 per 1000 patient days to 2.3 per 1000 patient days in 2021. Infection control unit practices, as well as an antibiotic stewardship program, were highly effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections, with significant decreases in antibiotic resistance.

14.
Sustainability ; 15(2):892, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166894

ABSTRACT

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome COVID-19 virus 2 (COVID-19) virus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on 9 January 2020, the entire world has been exceptionally interested in examining the impact of this pandemic on people and the environment. The pandemic led to unprecedented measures to halt air traffic and close factories due to lockdowns, economic closures, and the stopping of transportation of all kinds. The decline in the use of coal by power plants, oil refining, and steel manufacturing had a beneficial effect on air pollution and caused a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the concept of sustainability has become more prevalent, reflecting the increasing awareness of the responsibility placed on every member of society. Sustainability is the quality and quantity of change that meets our needs without destroying the giving planet, which is the hope for the survival of future generations. We summarized and discussed the studies and research documenting these effects on the environment and health worldwide to come up with objective conclusions, and to draw some recommendations and concepts about the importance of sustainability. The significance of this article lies in that it aims to briefly review some of the positive and negative impacts observed and reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on health and the planet's environment for the duration of April 2020-October 2022, and finally discuss the challenges and prospects to endorse planet sustainability. While COVID-19 had many beneficial effects on the planet's recovery, there were also profound effects on health due to the disease itself. Government and policymakers must take measures to prevent this environmental healing process from being transient.

15.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and diabetes are established risk factors for severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes, but less is known about their impact on susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and general symptom severity. We hypothesized that those with obesity or diabetes would be more likely to self-report a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and among those with a positive test, have greater symptom severity and duration.

16.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2157087

ABSTRACT

All currently approved COVID-19 vaccines utilize the spike protein as their immunogen. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) contain mutations in the spike protein, enabling them to escape infection- and vaccination-induced immune responses to cause reinfection. New vaccines are hence being researched intensively. Studying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes is essential for vaccine design, as identifying targets of broadly neutralizing antibody responses and immunodominant T-cell epitopes reveal candidates for inclusion in next-generation COVID-19 vaccines. We summarize the major studies which have reported on SARS-CoV-2 antibody and T-cell epitopes thus far. These results suggest that a future of pan-coronavirus vaccines, which not only protect against SARS-CoV-2 but numerous other coronaviruses, may be possible. The T-cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 have gotten less attention than neutralizing antibody epitopes but may provide new strategies to control SARS-CoV-2 infection. T-cells target many SARS-CoV-2 antigens other than spike, recognizing numerous epitopes within these antigens, thereby limiting the chance of immune escape by VOCs that mainly possess spike protein mutations. Therefore, augmenting vaccination-induced T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 may provide adequate protection despite broad antibody escape by VOCs.

17.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy ; 41(11):2281-2287, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2111887

ABSTRACT

The aim was to describe medication use during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. This observational study was a multi-city cross-sectional study that involved an online survey and included people of all ages and educational levels living in Saudi Arabia. The survey was filled out by 403 respondents. Most of the respondents used at least one medicine (93.55%) and 31.02% of them used herbal products during the corona epidemic. Ginger was the most used (32.80%), followed by lemon (25.60%), honey (19.20%), and Nigella sativa (14.40%). The most frequently used medication was paracetamol (90.72%), followed by ibuprofen (11.67%), azithromycin (6.63%), penicillin antibiotics (5.04%), and vitamin C (4.24%). About 50% of the respondents said that the medication relieves only some symptoms and only 19.36% of them said that the medication relieves all of the symptoms. The present study showed that several medications and herbal products were used commonly during the corona epidemic although there was no clinical evidence of using most of these products. Most of the public misinformation is gained from social media so it is important to increase the awareness of the public about the use of medications and herbal products during the corona epidemic. Copyright © 2022, Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. All rights reserved.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071505

ABSTRACT

In this article, 34 anticoagulant drugs were screened in silico against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking tools. Idraparinux, fondaparinux, eptifibatide, heparin, and ticagrelor demonstrated the highest binding affinities towards SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. A molecular dynamics study at 200 ns was also carried out for the most promising anticoagulants to provide insights into the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of promising compounds. Moreover, a quantum mechanical study was also conducted which helped us to attest to some of the molecular docking and dynamics findings. A biological evaluation (in vitro) of the most promising compounds was also performed by carrying out the MTT cytotoxicity assay and the crystal violet assay in order to assess inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). It is worth noting that ticagrelor displayed the highest intrinsic potential for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 with an IC50 value of 5.60 µM and a safety index of 25.33. In addition, fondaparinux sodium and dabigatran showed promising inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 8.60 and 9.40 µM, respectively, and demonstrated safety indexes of 17.60 and 15.10, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory potential of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme was investigated by utilizing the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro assay and using tipranavir as a reference standard. Interestingly, promising SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitory potential was attained for fondaparinux sodium with an IC50 value of 2.36 µM, surpassing the reference tipranavir (IC50 = 7.38 µM) by more than three-fold. Furthermore, highly eligible SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitory potential was attained for dabigatran with an IC50 value of 10.59 µM. Finally, an SAR was discussed, counting on the findings of both in vitro and in silico approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Fondaparinux , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Dabigatran , Ticagrelor , Eptifibatide , Gentian Violet , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Heparin/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
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