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1.
Work ; 71(4): 851-858, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biomedical waste can potentially compromise the environment and public safety if not safely disposed. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the understanding and safe practices of biomedical and dental waste amongst the dental practitioners and practical year students amid the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A structured and validated questionnaire consisting of 21 closed ended questions was used to collect data from dental practitioners and students working in hospitals and clinics. The questionnaire was distributed in paper and digital form amongst the participants. Descriptive analysis was performed for categorical and numerical variables. Spearman correlation test was used to assess the relationship between awareness and waste disposal practices of dentists. A p-value of≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: More than three fourth of the participants were aware of proper dental waste disposal steps. One half was aware of the color-coded segregation of biomedical waste management. Two third of the participants were deploying safe biomedical waste practices. Nearly 68% subjects allocated separate labeled containers for disposal of COVID-19 suspected patient's waste. Furthermore, 71.63% participants were practicing PCR test before aerosol procedures. While 88.65% participants believed that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the financial burden in terms of safe practices and dental waste management. CONCLUSION: The awareness and practices of the participants towards dental waste management was found to be moderate. Satisfactory COVID-19 prevention and transmission measures were observed amongst the participants. BMW management lessons should be included in the academic curriculum and training program needs to be adopted for mass awareness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dental Waste , Dentists , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Professional Role , Waste Management/methods
2.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S104-S107, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726826

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) group of viruses. To date, April 25, 2020, more than 2.4 million humans are infected and more than a hundred thousand deaths have been reported from more than 200 countries from COVID-19. There is no evidence-based treatment for the infection and prevention of transmission using social distancing, isolation and hygiene measures is widely recommended. Tobacco smoking is rampant in communities around the globe and the addiction to tobacco results in deaths of more than 8 million individuals each year. As COVID-19 transmits through salivary droplets and causes severe lung pneumonia, tobacco smokers are also at high risk of severe COVID-19 infection due to poor lung function, cross-infection and susceptible hygiene habits. Smoking tobacco (cigarette, e-cigarettes or waterpipe) produces exhaled smoke, coughing or sneezing, aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 in the surroundings and contaminating surfaces. Therefore, smoking tobacco is a possible mode of transmission for the virus for both active and passive smokers. Smoking should be considered a risk factor for the disease transmission until further availability of evidence and measures to limit its direct and indirect effects should be implemented within the community.

3.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S49-S56, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, awareness and practice level of health care workers towards Corona Virus disease - 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted by administering a well-structured questionnaire comprising of three sections including knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health care professionals in various hospitals and clinics, over a duration of two months 'Feb-March' 2020. The data from 810 participants were collected manually as well as through online survey registered on www.surveys.google.com, using a validated questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of three sections assessing knowledge, awareness and practice of participants. The descriptive analysis was carried out for demographics and dependent variables with statistical program for social sciences. Spearman test was used to detect any relationship between the health care professional response with respect to their gender and level of education. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: More than half (57.2%) of the health care professionals were working in a hospital setting. Fifty two percent of health care professionals had awareness and 72% were practicing adequate measures to combat COVID-19. The majority (81.9%) believed that the sign and symptoms are similar to a common flu and the main strata of population that could be affected by COVID-19 are elderly (79%). Seventy three percent of participants did not attend any lecture, workshop or seminar on COVID-19 for awareness purpose. Sixty seven percent of health care professionals were practicing universal precaution for infection control and 57.4% were using sodium hypochlorite as a surface disinfectant in dental surgeries. There was no significant relationship (p > 0.05) between the health care professionals' responses with gender and their education level. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that the vast majority of the health care professionals have adequate knowledge and awareness related to COVID-19. However some aspects of practice of health care professionals were found to be deficient including, following CDC guidelines during patient care, acquiring verified knowledge related to COVID-19, disinfection protocol and the use of N-95 mask. Mandatory Continued professional development programs including lectures and workshops on COVID-19 for all health care professionals are the need of the hour, to manage the pandemic and limiting the morbidity and mortality related to it.

4.
Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation ; 67(3):549-556, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1716727

ABSTRACT

Background: E-learning is increasingly used during the COVID-19 pandemic, however the impact of this change on students is not known. This study aimed to evaluate perception and satisfaction of health sciences students towards E-learning during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to 2000 health care students either through email or social media platforms. The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section addressed demographic information such as age, education level, course of study, number of lectures attended and country. The second section gathered information on perception and satisfaction of students using 13 close-ended questions. Frequencies and percentages were assessed for demographic data, perception and satisfaction level of students. The paired sample t-test, independent t test and Spearman correlation were applied to evaluate statistical significance between different variables of the study. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Data from 1255 participants were included at a response rate of 66.4%. More than one third (37%) of the students took 25 or more online E-learning sessions and 47% preferred Zoom as an online platform. Participants belonged to 11 countries from developed and developing nations. 41% reported interference of E-learning due to network problems. 60% considered that clinical and practical skills are best learned in clinics and laboratories. More than one third of the students preferred classroom teaching and 34% of the students did not feel confident enough to take exit exams after E-learning sessions. Conclusion: E-learning satisfaction levels were better among developed countries (7.34) compared to developing countries (5.82). The majority of participants agreed that E-learning was satisfactory in acquiring knowledge, however not effective in acquiring clinical and technical skills. As the COVID-19 lockdown eases, there is a need for improvement in the methods employed in E-learning and more blended learning among healthcare students is recommended. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319046

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is spreading at an alarming rate globally. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and many known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. Results: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR=0.85, 95% CI=(0.02, 3.93), P =0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR= 0.76;95% CI=(0.16, 3.72), P =0.735)];however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR=0.96, 95% CI=(0.61–2.99), P =0.942] and patients on statins had a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR=0.41, 95% CI= (0.07–2.33), P =0.312]. Conclusions: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19 , we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625402

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to control the rate of coronavirus transmission and infectivity. Dental practices are a high-risk area for contracting coronavirus; this fact generates psychological disturbances amongst patients. In this study, we aimed to assess the levels of anxiety of patients while visiting dental practices before and after getting vaccinated. This cross-sectional study was carried out between March and December 2021. An electronic survey was distributed among the vaccinated individuals who visited dental clinics before and after getting vaccinated. The survey consisted of the following four parts: demographic characteristics, questions related to coronavirus, and anxiety scores before and after getting vaccinated. SPSS-25 was used to perform the statistical analysis, where paired t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores, and Mann-Whitney U test to assess the association of gender with anxiety scores. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 400 vaccinated individuals participated in this study, with a response rate of 88.23%. The majority of the respondents (71.0%) did not test positive for coronavirus. More than half of the participants (54.0%) reported to not be suffering from any coronavirus-related symptoms. About 100 (25.0%) of the individuals stated that dental clinics are an environment in which there is a high risk of contracting coronavirus. In regards to the comparison of the mean MDAS scores of the participants before and after getting vaccinated, a significant difference (p = 0.001) was found. Vaccination has been recommended for all eligible individuals to control the transmission and infectivity of coronavirus. Vaccinations have decreased the dental anxiety of patients while visiting dental clinics. However, the protective measures are still valid and should be followed, regardless of the vaccination status.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(23)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551617

ABSTRACT

The oral cavity is an intricate environment subjected to various chemical, physical, and thermal injuries. The effectiveness of the local and systemically administered drugs is limited mainly due to their toxicities and poor oral bioavailability that leads to the limited effectiveness of the drugs in the target tissues. To address these issues, nanoparticle drug delivery systems based on metals, liposomes, polymeric particles, and core shells have been developed in recent years. Nano drug delivery systems have applications in the treatment of patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders such as preventing degeneration of cartilage in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and alleviating the pain along with it. The antibacterial dental applications of nano-drug delivery systems such as silver and copper-based nanoparticles include these agents used to arrest dental caries, multiple steps in root canal treatment, and patients suffering from periodontitis. Nanoparticles have been used in adjunct with antifungals to treat oral fungal infections such as candida albicans in denture wearers. Acyclovir being the most commonly used antiviral has been used in combination with nanoparticles against an array of viral infections such as the herpes simplex virus. Nanoparticles based combination agents offer more favorable drug release in a controlled manner along with efficient delivery at the site of action. This review presents an updated overview of the recently developed nanoparticles delivery systems for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders along with the treatment of different oral infections.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5437237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at assessing the impact of teledentistry, its application, and trends in uplifting dental practice and clinical care around the world. Material and Methods. The present observational study comprised of an electronic survey distributed among dental professionals around the globe. The validated survey form consisted of a total 26 questions with 5-point Likert scale response. The questionnaire used was divided into four domains: usefulness of teledentistry for patients, its usefulness in dental practice, its capacity to improve the existing practice, and the concerns attached to its use. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-25. ANOVA test was used to assess the effect of independent variables on dependent variables. A p value of ≤0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 506 dental professionals participated in the study with the response rate of 89.39%. More than half of the participants (50-75%) endorsed that teledentistry is a useful tool for improving clinical practice as well as patient care. Two-thirds of the participants (69.96%) considered that teledentistry would reduce cost for the dental practices. On the other hand, about 50-70% of dental professionals expressed their concerns regarding the security of the data and consent of patients. The most preferred communication tool for teledentistry was reported to be videoconference followed by phone. The majority of participants recommended the use of teledentistry in the specialty of oral medicine, operative dentistry, and periodontics. There was a significant difference between the age, experience of dentists, and their qualifications with domains of teledentistry. CONCLUSIONS: The overall impact of dental professionals towards teledentistry was positive with adequate willingness to incorporate this modality in their clinical practice. However, the perceived concerns pertaining to teledentistry are significant impediments towards its integration within the oral health system. An in-depth study of its business model and cost-benefit needs of time, especially in the context of developing countries, in order to avail the optimum benefits of teledentistry.


Subject(s)
Dentistry/methods , Dentistry/trends , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Asia , Attitude of Health Personnel , Dentists , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534067

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented situation of the coronavirus pandemic has impacted the entire world, with dental practice being significantly affected. In this study, we aim to evaluate the operational implications and risk assessment of the coronavirus in dental practice. This observational study comprised the electronic distribution of two surveys, one to patients and the second to dental professionals. The first questionnaire consisted of demographics along with 15 closed-ended questions. The second questionnaire consisted of demographics along with 43 questions from eight domains: financial impact, psychological impact, patient satisfaction, hygiene, patient management, COVID-19 lockdown, perspective, and practicing dentistry after the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-25. A linear regression test was applied to assess the effect of the dependent variable (patient's satisfaction with the dental practice) on independent variables (age, gender, education). The ANOVA test was applied to assess the effect of the independent variables (financial impact, psychological impact, patient satisfaction, hygiene, patient management, lockdown, perspective, and post-COVID-19) on the dependent variables (age, gender, education, experience of dentists, qualification of dentists). A total of 711 patients and dental professionals participated in this study, with a response rate of 88.87%. Approximately 67.9% of the patients felt comfortable in the dental clinic, with 74.5% being satisfied with the dental clinic's services. The majority (77.4%) of the dentists were psychologically affected. Many of the participants chose to use masks, gowns, respiratory equipment, and face shields for protection. Teledentistry was preferred by the majority of dentists in non-emergency cases. Many of the dentists chose alternative procedures to minimize the generation of aerosols. The majority of the dentists suggested changes in the dynamics of dentistry in the post-COVID era, such as the suggestion that the management of the finances of a dental practice along with infection control protocols should be practiced more optimally. Patients and dental professionals were well aware of the necessary precautionary measures required to combat the coronavirus, as well as the implications of different operational measures along with performing risk assessment, keeping in mind the changing dynamics of dentistry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dentists , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is globally spreading at an alarming rate. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and various known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR = 0.85, 95% CI = (0.02, 3.93), P = 0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR = 0.76; 95% CI = (0.16, 3.72), P = 0.735)]; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR = 0.96, 95% CI = (0.61-2.99), P = 0.942] and patients on statins showed a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR = 0.41, 95% CI = (0.07-2.33), P = 0.312]. CONCLUSIONS: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19, we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to further evaluate and validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

11.
Work ; 67(4): 791-798, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-perceived competency (FSPC) of medical faculty in E-Teaching and support received during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online well-structured and validated faculty self-perceived competency questionnaire was used to collect responses from medical faculty. The questionnaire consisted of four purposely build sections on competence in student engagement, instructional strategy, technical communication and time management. The responses were recorded using a Likert ordinal scale (1-9). The Questionnaire was uploaded at www.surveys.google.com and the link was distributed through social media outlets and e-mails. Descriptive statistics and Independent paired t-test were used for analysis and comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 738 responses were assessed. Nearly 54% (397) participants had less than 5 years of teaching experience, 24.7% (182) had 6-10 years and 11.7% (86) had 11-15 years teaching expertise. 75.6% (558) respondents have delivered online lectures during the pandemic. Asynchronous methods were used by 61% (450) and synchronous by 39% (288) of participants. Moreover, 22.4% (165) participants revealed that their online lectures were evaluated by a structured feedback from experts, while 38.3% participants chose that their lectures were not evaluated. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between FSPC scores and online teaching evaluation by experts. The mean score of FSPC scale was 5.62±1.15. The mean score for student's engagement, instructional strategies, technical communication and time management were of 5.18±1.60, 5.67±1.61, 5.49±1.71 and 6.12±1.67 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Medical faculty members were found somewhat competent in E-teaching for student engagement, instructional strategy, technical communication and time management skills. Faculty receiving feedback was more competent in comparison to peers teaching without feedback.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Professional Competence , Self Concept , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Female , Formative Feedback , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teaching/psychology , Time Management
12.
Eur J Dent ; 14(S 01): S91-S96, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anxiety and depression amid novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic in health sciences students around the globe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study comprised 523 health science students. A well-structured online questionnaire consisting of closed-ended questions based on student's general information, Patient Heath Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7 scales were used to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: SPSS-25 was used to analyze the outcome of this study. Multiple linear regression analysis test was used to assess variables which had impact on PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores among the participants. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Among the 523 participants, 365 (69.55%) students were from developing countries and 158 (30.21%) from developed countries; 424 (81.1%) students were tested negative for COVID-19 and 99 (18.9%) had suffered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pandemic. The mean GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores were 7.16 ± 5.755 and 7.30 ± 6.166, respectively. Significant impact on anxiety levels was associated with age, gender, education status, and COVID-19 positive patient, while depression was not significantly associated with gender, COVID-19, and its reported symptoms in participants. CONCLUSION: As the world is trying to contain the health effects of COVID-19, the psychological effects might take a longer time to be addressed. Our study highlights the dire need to identify mental well-being of health science students as this may have a direct impact on their professional commitments and future responsibilities.

13.
Eur J Dent ; 14(S 01): S1-S6, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient's knowledge, attitude, and practice of cross-infection control in dentistry during coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi from June 2020 to August 2020. A total of 775 patients participated to fill questionnaire. After scrutiny, 25 questionnaire forms were excluded due to incomplete information. Questionnaire was divided in to four sections. First section obtained patients sociodemographic information, while knowledge of patients regarding cross-infection control during COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated in second section. Similarly, the purpose of third section was to assess attitude and fourth section was designed to evaluate practice. Likert's 3-point scale was used for registration of participant's response. The reliability of questionnaire was assessed through Crohnbach's α (α = 0.74). Statistical analysis was performed after entering data in to SPSS version 25. Independent t-test was used to evaluate the difference in patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Majority of the participants agreed that COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease (631, 97%) and daily screening of staff, dental assistants, dentists, and patients is necessary (568, 75.7%) along with proper sterilization of instruments and disinfection of dental operatory (650, 86.66%). A large number of participant also agreed that proper disposal of waste is utmost important for cross-infection control (601, 80.24%) and patient's waiting area should also be marked with social distancing sign (620, 82.66%). However, when asked about the common route of COVID-19 transmission in dentistry, 341 (45.5%) participants disagreed that it is not through aerosol (water droplets) generated during dental procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Dental health professionals should take additional measures to educate dental patients on mechanism of potential spread of COVID-19 through the aerosols and droplets generated during dental procedures. They should also encourage the dental patients to be vigilant and question the cross-infection control measures practiced by the dentist to whom they go for dental treatment, and to decrease their chances of acquiring an infection during their visit to the dental office.

14.
Eur J Dent ; 14(S 01): S27-S33, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate psychological distress caused by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among the adult population residing in Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey-based study comprised 1,000 adults residing in Pakistan. A questionnaire was formulated and circulated among adult population of Pakistan, the depression and anxiety symptoms using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scales were assessed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Independent t-test, cross tabulation, and regression analysis were used to identify variables having impact on PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among 1,000 participants, 573 were males and 427 were females who completed the survey. Majority were restricted to home for more than 40 days. Considerable number of participants reported depressive (540, 54%) and anxiety (480, 48%) symptoms. Gender, age, earnings, and occupation have significant relation with psychological distress, although similar was not found with education levels. CONCLUSION: Psychological distress, a concerning yet addressable issue was found among adults arising amid COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, physical health effects of COVID-19 are being looked, while mental health effects being under-addressed. This issue should be addressed to avoid any psychological impact in future.

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