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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102986, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910387

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to SARS-CoV-2 614D (wild type [WT]) strain and variants of concern after the primary 2-dose and booster vaccination. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with NSCLC and 53 healthy volunteers who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included in the study. Blood was collected longitudinally, and SARS-CoV-2-specific binding and neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated by Meso Scale Discovery assay and live virus Focus Reduction Neutralization Assay, respectively. RESULTS: A majority of patients with NSCLC generated binding and neutralizing antibody titers comparable with the healthy vaccinees after mRNA vaccination, but a subset of patients with NSCLC (25%) made poor responses, resulting in overall lower (six- to seven-fold) titers compared with the healthy cohort (P = < .0001). Although patients age > 70 years had lower immunoglobulin G titers (P = < .01), patients receiving programmed death-1 monotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both did not have a significant impact on the antibody response. Neutralizing antibody titers to the B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.351 (Beta), and in particular, B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were significantly lower (P = < .0001) compared with the 614D (WT) strain. Booster vaccination led to a significant increase (P = .0001) in the binding and neutralizing antibody titers to the WT and Omicron variant. However, 2-4 months after the booster, we observed a five- to seven-fold decrease in neutralizing titers to WT and Omicron viruses. CONCLUSION: A subset of patients with NSCLC responded poorly to the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and had low neutralizing antibodies to the B.1.1.529 Omicron variant. Booster vaccination increased binding and neutralizing antibody titers to Omicron, but antibody titers declined after 3 months. These data highlight the concern for patients with cancer given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2200088, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879289

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) are at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated vaccine-induced antibody responses in patients with NHL/CLL against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants of concern including B.1.167.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from 121 patients with NHL/CLL receiving two doses of vaccine were collected longitudinally. Antibody binding against the full-length spike protein, the receptor-binding, and N-terminal domains of the original strain and of variants was measured using a multiplex assay. Live-virus neutralization against Delta, Omicron, and the early WA1/2020 strains was measured using a focus reduction neutralization test. B cells were measured by flow cytometry. Correlation between vaccine response and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G-binding titers were 85-fold lower in patients with NHL/CLL compared with healthy controls, with seroconversion occurring in only 67% of patients. Neutralization titers were also lower and correlated with binding titers (P < .0001). Treatment with anti-CD20-directed therapies within 1 year resulted in 136-fold lower binding titers. Peripheral blood B-cell count also correlated with vaccine response. At 3 months from last anti-CD20-directed therapy, B-cell count ≥ 4.31/µL blood around the time of vaccination predicted response (OR 7.46, P = .04). Antibody responses also correlated with age. Importantly, neutralization titers against Delta and Omicron were reduced six- and 42-fold, respectively, with 67% of patients seropositive for WA1/2020 exhibiting seronegativity for Omicron. CONCLUSION: Antibody binding and live-virus neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern including Delta and Omicron were substantially lower in patients with NHL/CLL compared with healthy vaccinees. Anti-CD20-directed therapy < 1 year before vaccination and number of circulating B cells strongly predict vaccine response.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336925

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 BA.1 and BA.2 (Omicron) variants contain more than 30 mutations within the spike protein and evade therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we report a receptor-binding domain (RBD) targeting human antibody (002-S21F2) that effectively neutralizes live viral isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) with IC50 ranging from 0.02 – 0.05 μg/ml. This near germline antibody 002-S21F2 has unique genetic features that are distinct from any reported SARS-CoV-2 mAbs. Structural studies of the full-length IgG in complex with spike trimers (Omicron and WA.1) reveal that 002-S21F2 recognizes an epitope on the outer face of RBD (class-3 surface), outside the ACE2 binding motif and its unique molecular features enable it to overcome mutations found in the Omicron variants. The discovery and comprehensive structural analysis of 002-S21F2 provide valuable insight for broad and potent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants BA.1 and BA.2.

4.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0002622, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784768

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity is a major component of the adaptive immune response against viruses and other pathogens with pathogen-specific antibody acting as the first line of defense against infection. Virus-specific antibody levels are maintained by continual secretion of antibody by plasma cells residing in the bone marrow. This raises the important question of how the virus-specific plasma cell population is stably maintained and whether memory B cells are required to replenish plasma cells, balancing their loss arising from their intrinsic death rate. In this study, we examined the longevity of virus-specific antibody responses in the serum of mice following acute viral infection with three different viruses: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), influenza virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To investigate the contribution of memory B cells to the maintenance of virus-specific antibody levels, we employed human CD20 transgenic mice, which allow for the efficient depletion of B cells with rituximab, a human CD20-specific monoclonal antibody. Mice that had resolved an acute infection with LCMV, influenza virus, or VSV were treated with rituximab starting at 2 months after infection, and the treatment was continued for up to a year postinfection. This treatment regimen with rituximab resulted in efficient depletion of B cells (>95%), with virus-specific memory B cells being undetectable. There was an early transient drop in the antibody levels after rituximab treatment followed by a plateauing of the curve with virus-specific antibody levels remaining relatively stable (half-life of 372 days) for up to a year after infection in the absence of memory B cells. The number of virus-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow were consistent with the changes seen in serum antibody levels. Overall, our data show that virus-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow are intrinsically long-lived and can maintain serum antibody titers for extended periods of time without requiring significant replenishment from memory B cells. These results provide insight into plasma cell longevity and have implications for B cell depletion regimens in cancer and autoimmune patients in the context of vaccination in general and especially for COVID-19 vaccines. IMPORTANCE Following vaccination or primary virus infection, virus-specific antibodies provide the first line of defense against reinfection. Plasma cells residing in the bone marrow constitutively secrete antibodies, are long-lived, and can thus maintain serum antibody levels over extended periods of time in the absence of antigen. Our data, in the murine model system, show that virus-specific plasma cells are intrinsically long-lived but that some reseeding by memory B cells might occur. Our findings demonstrate that, due to the longevity of plasma cells, virus-specific antibody levels remain relatively stable in the absence of memory B cells and have implications for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Rituximab , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Plasma Cells/cytology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/immunology , Rituximab/pharmacology
5.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100603, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764032

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic highlights the importance of determining the breadth and durability of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Herein, we characterize the humoral response in 27 naive and 40 recovered vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses are durable up to 6 months, although antibody half-lives are shorter for naive recipients. The magnitude of the humoral responses to vaccination strongly correlates with responses to initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralization titers are lower against SARS-CoV-2 variants in both recovered and naive vaccinees, with titers more reduced in naive recipients. While the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the main neutralizing target of circulating antibodies, Moderna-vaccinated naives show a lesser reliance on RBDs, with >25% neutralization remaining after depletion of RBD-binding antibodies. Overall, we observe that vaccination induces higher peak titers and improves durability in recovered compared with naive vaccinees. These findings have broad implications for current vaccine strategies deployed against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
6.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102257, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731566

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) play a critical role in protection from SARS CoV-2. Patients with B-cell malignancies including myeloma are at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality and exhibit variable serologic response to the vaccine. The capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies in these patients to neutralize SARS CoV-2 or its variants is not known. METHODS: Sera from 238 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing SARS CoV-2 vaccination were analyzed. Antibodies against the SARS CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and viral nucleocapsid were measured to detect serologic response to vaccine and environmental exposure to the virus. The capacity of antibodies to neutralize virus was quantified using pseudovirus neutralization assay and live virus neutralization against the initial SARS CoV-2 strain and the B1.617.2 (Delta) variant. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced nAbs are detectable at much lower rates (54%) than estimated in previous seroconversion studies in MM, which did not monitor viral neutralization. In 33% of patients, vaccine-induced antispike RBD antibodies lack detectable neutralizing capacity, including against the B1.617.2 variant. Induction of nAbs is affected by race, disease, and treatment-related factors. Patients receiving mRNA1273 vaccine (Moderna) achieved significantly greater induction of nAbs compared with those receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer; 67% v 48%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: These data show that vaccine-induced antibodies in several patients with MM lack detectable virus-neutralizing activity. Vaccine-mediated induction of nAbs is affected by race, disease, vaccine, and treatment characteristics. These data have several implications for the emerging application of booster vaccines in immunocompromised hosts.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 165: 20-31, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) has produced anti-inflammatory effects in both animal models and early human trials of COVID-19-related pneumonia. The role of whole-lung LD-RT within existing treatment paradigms merits further study. METHODS: A phase II prospective trial studied the addition of LD-RT to standard drug treatments. Hospitalized and oxygen-dependent patients receiving dexamethasone and/or remdesevir were treated with 1.5 Gy whole-lung LD-RT and compared to a blindly-matched contemporaneous control cohort. RESULTS: Of 40 patients evaluated, 20 received drug therapy combined with whole-lung LD-RT and 20 without LD-RT. Intubation rates were 14% with LD-RT compared to 32% without (p = 0.09). Intubation-free survival was 77% vs. 68% (p = 0.17). Biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, p = 0.02) and cardiac injury (creatine kinase, p < 0.01) declined following LD-RT compared to controls. Mean time febrile was 1.4 vs 3.3 days, respectively (p = 0.14). Significant differences in clinical recovery (7.5 vs. 7 days, p = 0.37) and radiographic improvement (p = 0.72) were not detected. On subset analysis, CRP decline following LD-RT was predictive of recovery without intubation compared to controls (0% vs. 31%, p = 0.04), freedom from prolonged hospitalizations (21+ days) (0% vs. 31%, p = 0.04), and decline in oxygenation burden (56% reduction, p = 0.06). CRP decline following 1st drug therapy was not similarly predictive of outcome in controls (p = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: Adding LD-RT to standard drug treatments reduced biomarkers of inflammation and cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients and may have reduced intubation. Durable CRP decline following LD-RT predicted especially favorable recovery, freedom from intubation, reduction in prolonged hospitalization, and reduced oxygenation burden. A confirmatory randomized trial is now ongoing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04366791.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 743-750, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of retinopathy and its association with systemic morbidity and laboratory indices of coagulation and inflammatory dysfunction in severe COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: Adult patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 who underwent ophthalmic examination from April to July 2020 were reviewed. Retinopathy was defined as one of the following: 1) Retinal hemorrhage; 2) Cotton wool spots; 3) Retinal vascular occlusion. We analyzed medical comorbidities, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, clinical outcomes, and laboratory values for their association with retinopathy. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with severe COVID-19 were reviewed, the majority of whom were female (n = 23, 62%), Black (n = 26, 69%), and admitted to the intensive care unit (n = 35, 95%). Fourteen patients had retinopathy (38%) with retinal hemorrhage in 7 (19%), cotton wool spots in 8 (22%), and a branch retinal artery occlusion in 1 (3%) patient. Patients with retinopathy had higher SOFA scores than those without retinopathy (8.0 vs. 5.3, p = .03), higher rates of respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and shock requiring vasopressors (p < .01). Peak D-dimer levels were 28,971 ng/mL in patients with retinopathy compared to 12,575 ng/mL in those without retinopathy (p = .03). Peak CRP was higher in patients with cotton wool spots versus those without cotton wool spots (354 mg/dL vs. 268 mg/dL, p = .03). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed an increased risk of retinopathy with higher peak D-dimers (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.73, p = .04) and male sex (aOR 9.6, 95% CI 1.2-75.5, p = .04). CONCLUSION: Retinopathy in severe COVID-19 was associated with greater systemic disease morbidity involving multiple organs. Given its association with coagulopathy and inflammation, retinopathy may offer insight into disease pathogenesis in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Morbidity , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
9.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(1): 9-12, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299253

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematologic malignancies have increased susceptibility to viral infections and suboptimal immunologic responses to current vaccines due to both disease-associated and therapy-related immune dysfunction. These considerations may impact the efficacy of emerging COVID-19 vaccines in this patient population as well and warrant the need to systematically study natural and vaccine-induced virus-specific immunity in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Virus Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
10.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(7): 100354, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294297

ABSTRACT

Ending the COVID-19 pandemic will require long-lived immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluate 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally up to 8 months and find durable broad-based immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibit a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection also boosts antibody titers to SARS-CoV-1 and common betacoronaviruses. In addition, spike-specific IgG+ memory B cells persist, which bodes well for a rapid antibody response upon virus re-exposure or vaccination. Virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are polyfunctional and maintained with an estimated half-life of 200 days. Interestingly, CD4+ T cell responses equally target several SARS-CoV-2 proteins, whereas the CD8+ T cell responses preferentially target the nucleoprotein, highlighting the potential importance of including the nucleoprotein in future vaccines. Taken together, these results suggest that broad and effective immunity may persist long-term in recovered COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
J Immunol ; 206(11): 2605-2613, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218655

ABSTRACT

The factors that control the development of an effective immune response to the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus are poorly understood. In this study, we provide a cross-sectional analysis of the dynamics of B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We observe changes in B cell subsets consistent with a robust humoral immune response, including significant expansion of plasmablasts and activated receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cell populations. We observe elevated titers of Abs to SARS-CoV-2 RBD, full-length Spike, and nucleoprotein over the course of infection, with higher levels of RBD-specific IgG correlating with increased serum neutralization. Depletion of RBD-specific Abs from serum removed a major portion of neutralizing activity in most individuals. Some donors did retain significant residual neutralization activity, suggesting a potential Ab subset targeting non-RBD epitopes. Taken together, these findings are instructive for future vaccine design and mAb strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Acute Disease , Cell Line , Female , Humans , Male , Protein Domains
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(4): 516-521.e3, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141671

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in the spike protein is raising concerns about the efficacy of infection- or vaccine-induced antibodies. We compared antibody binding and live virus neutralization of sera from naturally infected and Moderna-vaccinated individuals against two SARS-CoV-2 variants: B.1 containing the spike mutation D614G and the emerging B.1.351 variant containing additional spike mutations and deletions. Sera from acutely infected and convalescent COVID-19 patients exhibited a 3-fold reduction in binding antibody titers to the B.1.351 variant receptor-binding domain of the spike protein and a 3.5-fold reduction in neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 variant compared to the B.1 variant. Similar results were seen with sera from Moderna-vaccinated individuals. Despite reduced antibody titers against the B.1.351 variant, sera from infected and vaccinated individuals containing polyclonal antibodies to the spike protein could still neutralize SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351, suggesting that protective humoral immunity may be retained against this variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/chemistry
15.
Virology ; 558: 13-21, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123073

ABSTRACT

India is one of the most affected countries by COVID-19 pandemic; but little is understood regarding immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in this region. Herein we examined SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, IgG, IgM, IgA and memory B cells in COVID-19 recovered individual from India. While a vast majority of COVID-19 recovered individuals showed SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies (38/42, 90.47%; 21/42, 50%; 33/42, 78.57% respectively), only half of them had appreciable neutralizing antibody titers. RBD-specific IgG, but not IgA or IgM titers, correlated with neutralizing antibody titers and RBD-specific memory B cell frequencies. These findings have timely significance for identifying potential donors for plasma therapy using RBD-specific IgG assays as surrogate measurement for neutralizing antibodies in India. Further, this study provides useful information needed for designing large-scale studies towards understanding of inter-individual variation in immune memory to SARS CoV-2 natural infection for future vaccine evaluation and implementation efforts.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/analysis , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 109(4): 867-879, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phase 1 clinical trials have established low-dose, whole-lung radiation therapy (LD-RT) as safe for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia. By focally dampening cytokine hyperactivation, LD-RT may improve disease outcomes through immunomodulation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia were treated with 1.5 Gy whole-lung LD-RT, followed for 28 days or until hospital discharge, and compared with age- and comorbidity-matched controls meeting identical disease severity criteria. Eligible patients were hospitalized, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) positive, had radiographic consolidations, and required supplemental oxygen but had not rapidly declined on admission or before drug therapy or LD-RT. Efficacy endpoints were time to clinical recovery, radiographic improvement, and biomarker response. RESULTS: Ten patients received whole-lung LD-RT between April 24 and May 24, 2020 and were compared with 10 control patients blindly matched by age and comorbidity. Six controls received COVID-19 drug therapies. Median time to clinical recovery was 12 days in the control cohort compared with 3 days in the LD-RT cohort (hazard ratio 2.9, P = .05). Median time to hospital discharge (20 vs 12 days, P = .19) and intubation rates (40% vs 10%, P = .12) in the control and LD-RT cohorts were compared. Median time from admission to recovery was 10 versus 13 days (P = .13). Hospital duration average was 19 versus 22.6 days (P = .53). Average hospital days on supplemental oxygen of any duration was 13.1 versus 14.7 days (P = .69). Average days with a documented fever was 1 versus 4.3 days (P = .12). Twenty-eight-day overall survival was 90% for both cohorts. The LD-RT cohort trended toward superior rates of improved radiographs (P = .12) and delirium (P < .01). Statistically significant reductions were observed in numerous hematologic, cardiac, hepatic, and inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: A prospective cohort of predominantly elderly hospitalized patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia were recovered to room air quicker than age- and comorbidity-matched controls, with trending or significant improvements in delirium, radiographs, and biomarkers, and no significant acute toxicity. Low-dose, whole-lung radiation for patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia appears safe and may be an effective immunomodulatory treatment. Larger prospective randomized trials are needed to define the efficacy of LD-RT for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Immunomodulation/radiation effects , Lung/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiotherapy Dosage , Safety , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
18.
Cancer ; 126(23): 5109-5113, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-804970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals of advanced age with comorbidities face a higher risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially once they are ventilator-dependent. Respiratory decline in patients with COVID-19 is precipitated by a lung-mediated aberrant immune cytokine storm. Low-dose lung radiation was used to treat pneumonia in the pre-antibiotic era. Radiation immunomodulatory effects may improve outcomes for select patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A single-institution trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of single-fraction, low-dose whole-lung radiation for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is being performed for the first time. This report describes outcomes of a planned day 7 interim analysis. Eligible patients were hospitalized, had radiographic consolidation, required supplemental oxygen, and were clinically deteriorating. RESULTS: Of 9 patients screened, 5 were treated with whole-lung radiation on April 24 until April 28 2020, and they were followed for a minimum of 7 days. The median age was 90 years (range, 64-94 years), and 4 were nursing home residents with multiple comorbidities. Within 24 hours of radiation, 3 patients (60%) were weaned from supplemental oxygen to ambient air, 4 (80%) exhibited radiographic improvement, and the median Glasgow Coma Scale score improved from 10 to 14. A fourth patient (80% overall recovery) was weaned from oxygen at hour 96. The mean time to clinical recovery was 35 hours. There were no acute toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot trial of 5 oxygen-dependent elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation led to rapid improvements in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic consolidation without acute toxicity. Low-dose whole-lung radiation appears to be safe, shows early promise of efficacy, and warrants further study. LAY SUMMARY: Researchers at Emory University report preliminary safety outcomes for patients treated with low-dose lung irradiation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Five residents of nursing or group homes were hospitalized after testing positive for COVID-19. Each had pneumonia visible on a chest x-ray, required supplemental oxygen, and experienced a clinical decline in mental status or in work of breathing or a prolonged or escalating supplemental oxygen requirement. A single treatment of low-dose (1.5-Gy) radiation to both lungs was delivered over the course of 10 to 15 minutes. There was no acute toxicity attributable to radiation therapy. Within 24 hours, 4 patients had rapidly improved breathing, and they recovered to room air at an average of 1.5 days (range, 3-96 hours). Three were discharged at a mean time of 12 days, and 1 was preparing for discharge. Blood tests and repeat imaging confirm that low-dose whole-lung radiation treatment appears safe for COVID-19 pneumonia. Further trials are warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology
19.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(3): 100040, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549041

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, is causing a devastating worldwide pandemic, and there is a pressing need to understand the development, specificity, and neutralizing potency of humoral immune responses during acute infection. We report a cross-sectional study of antibody responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and virus neutralization activity in a cohort of 44 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RBD-specific IgG responses are detectable in all patients 6 days after PCR confirmation. Isotype switching to IgG occurs rapidly, primarily to IgG1 and IgG3. Using a clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolate, neutralizing antibody titers are detectable in all patients by 6 days after PCR confirmation and correlate with RBD-specific binding IgG titers. The RBD-specific binding data were further validated in a clinical setting with 231 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patient samples. These findings have implications for understanding protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, therapeutic use of immune plasma, and development of much-needed vaccines.

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