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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1):27, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Woman-centred maternity care is respectful and responsive to women's needs, values, and preferences. Women's views and expectations regarding the quality of health services during pregnancy and childbirth vary across settings. Despite the need for context-relevant evidence, to our knowledge, no reviews focus on what women in sub-Saharan African Low and Low Middle-Income Countries (LLMICs) regard as quality intrapartum care that can inform quality guidelines in countries. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative meta-synthesis using a framework synthesis to identify the experiences and expectations of women in sub-Saharan African LLMICs with quality intrapartum care. Following a priori protocol, we searched eight databases for primary articles using keywords. We used Covidence to collate citations, remove duplicates, and screen articles using a priori set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two authors independently screened first the title and s, and the full texts of the papers. Using a data extraction excel sheet, we extracted first-order and second-order constructs relevant to review objectives. The WHO framework for a positive childbirth experience underpinned data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 7197 identified citations, 30 articles were included in this review. Women's needs during the intrapartum period resonate with what women want globally, however, priorities regarding the components of quality care for women and the urgency to intervene differed in this context given the socio-cultural norms and available resources. Women received sub-quality intrapartum care and global standards for woman-centred care were often compromised. They were mistreated verbally and physically. Women experienced poor communication with their care providers and non-consensual care and were rarely involved in decisions concerning their care. Women were denied the companion of choice due to cultural and structural factors. CONCLUSION: To improve care seeking and satisfaction with health services, woman-centred care is necessary for a positive childbirth experience. Women must be meaningfully engaged in the design of health services, accountability frameworks, and evaluation of maternal services. Research is needed to set minimum indicators for woman-centred outcomes for low-resource settings along with actionable strategies to enhance the quality of maternity care based on women's needs and preferences.

2.
Pakistan Paediatric Journal ; 46(2):229-232, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955740

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcal aureus infection in children is a major public health problem globally. It causes a varied spectrum of clinical disease including bacteremia, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infection, pleuro-pulmaonry and osteo-articular infection. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a known complication of staphylococcal infection. We report a case series which included, 10-year old boy developed DVT, septic pulmonary emboli and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) bacteremia following a furuculosis and 13 year old girl with thrombosis of internal and external jugular vein, cavernous sinus with pulmonary emboli and MRA bacteremia. Both patients are previously healthy showed complete recovery after aggressive appropriate antibiotics, anticoagulants and supportive care. The high index of suspicion of DVT in MRSA infection is needed, prompt diagnosis and aggressive appropriate therapies improve the outcomes and minimize the complications.

3.
Physics of Fluids ; 34(5), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860502

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has increased the use of facial masks globally, which of late have registered their presence as a part of our civilization. The N95 mask is one of the most popular choices under the current situation. However, the available masks cannot provide breathing comfort for an extended period, which results in rebreathing of exhaled air that is CO2 rich, and which remains in the breathing space of the respirator. Furthermore, problems like moisture settlement on the covered area of the face due to the multiple layers of fabric-like material causes significant discomfort. Hence, the need for a mask with an air-purification activity is the need of the hour. The present innovation relates to the invention of a mask that is battery-powered or solar-operated and addresses the aforementioned problems. This mask not only regulates the airflow, which is beneficial to our body in every way, but also lowers the discomfort of sweating and heating. The effect of the addition of the self-developed active respirator to the commercially available masks on the inspired CO2 level, thermal comfort, and speech clarity has been demonstrated in this study. We have exhibited through in vitro experiments that the filtration capability of the active-respirator improvised mask, we call the Bose shield, does not deter from that of the standard N95 mask. To our understanding, the use of this novel mask can reduce the occurrence of CO2 rebreathing in respiratory protective devices and its impact on workers who inevitably wear them for a prolonged period of time. © 2022 Author(s).

4.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):912-914, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1856778

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objectives of the study is determining the effectiveness of interventional program on nursing staffs' knowledge about prevention of Covid-19. Methodology: A pre-experimental design (one group design: pre-test and post-test) conducted at Isolation Ward in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital. The study period from (13th October, 2021 to 4th March, 2022) on a non-probability (purposive) sample consisting of (34 nurses) working in Isolation Ward. Results: The study demonstrated that all the study sample responses at the pre-test were low knowledge with a statistical mean of scores (1.2817). Other than the post-test, the table shows that (100%) of the study sample have high knowledge at the mean of scores (1.8978). Also, the results revealed a highly significant difference between the pre-test and post-test of the study sample after participated in the interventional program at the p-value (0.0001). In addition to, this study indicated that there were significant differences in nurses knowledge in post-test compared to pre-test (in the post test M= 1.89 versus in the pretest M= 1.28 at p-value 0.0001). Conclusion: The level of nurses' knowledge was not as required (poor).After giving the interventional program the knowledge of nursing staff was improved.

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S356, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746489

ABSTRACT

Background. We investigated clinical outcomes of favipiravir in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods. Patients who between 23 May 2020 and 18 July 2020 received ≥24 hours of favipiravir were assigned to the favipiravir group, while those who did not formed the non-favipiravir group. The primary outcome was 28-day clinical improvement, defined as two-category improvement from baseline on an 8-point ordinal scale. Propensity scores (PS) for favipiravir therapy were used for 1:1 matching. Cox regression was used to examine associations with the primary endpoint. Results. The unmatched cohort included 1,493 patients, of which 51.7% were in the favipiravir group, and 48.3% were not receiving supplemental oxygen at baseline (table 1). Favipiravir was started within a median of 5 days from symptoms onset. Significant baseline differences between the two unmatched groups existed, but not between the PSmatched groups (N = 774) (table 1). After PS-matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the proportion with 28-day clinical improvement (93.3% versus 92.8%, P 0.780), or 28-day all-cause mortality (2.1% versus 3.1%, P 0.360) (Table 2). Favipiravir was associated with more viral clearance by day 28 (79.8% versus 64.1%, P < 0.001) (table 2). In the adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, favipiravir therapy was not associated 28-day clinical improvement (adjusted hazard ratio 0.978, 95% confidence interval 0.862 -1.109, P 0.726) (Table 3). Conclusion. Favipiravir therapy for COVID-19 pneumonia is well tolerated but is not associated with an increased likelihood of clinical improvement or reduced allcause mortality by 28 days.

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S383, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746436

ABSTRACT

Background. Tocilizumab is an interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody with widespread use in rheumatologic conditions. Observational studies have shown a promising role of Tocilizumab in severe COVID-19 patients with cytokine storm syndrome. Data about tocilizumab use in pregnant patients is limited. We report two outcomes of two pregnant patients with COVID-19 in the second trimester who received tocilizumab Methods. A 24-year-old 20 weeks pregnant lady with a history of asthma and gestational diabetes mellitus presented with three days history of fever, cough and shortness of breath (Figure 1). She was clinically stable but later developed ARDS and developed increased oxygen demand up to 10 liters/min. She received Tocilizumab on. Patient was observed in a high dependency unit but did not require mechanical ventilation. Patient was discharged home with full recovery and later delivered a healthy baby. Timeline of medicines used during hospital (Figure 2). Case 2: 39-year-old 23 weeks pregnant lady presented with seven days history of fever cough and shortness of breath (Figure 1). On presentation, she had progressive worsening hypoxic respiratory failure and was intubated. Patient had her nasopharyngeal swab for CODI-19 RT PCR was positive. The patient had severe ARDS requiring ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) for respiratory support. Tocilizumab 400 mg was given on the presentation, along with other medications (Figure 3). Patient had regular monitoring of fetus;however, she had intrauterine fetal demise on day 14. Patient It is unclear if IUFD was due to using of tocilizumab or severity of COVID19 itself. The patient stayed in ICU for 20 days and was discharged after full recovery. Figure 1. Case 1 treatment timeline. Abberviations: Azithro: Azithromycin, HCQ: Hydroxychloroquine, CQ: Chloroquine, LPV/r: lopinavir/Ritonavir, Osel: Oseltamivir, MP: Methylprednisolone, Ampi-sulb: Ampicillin-sulbactam, TCZ: tocilizumab Figure 2. Case 2 treatment timeline Results. Learning points: Tocilizumab use in pregnant patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the second trimester improved maternal outcomes in our cases. Tocilizumab use may be associated with worse fetal outcomes, including intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD). Conclusion. The pharmacological management of pregnant patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia poses significant challenges. The use of Tocilizumab may improve maternal outcomes but may also increase the risk of worse fetal outcomes. Caution should be exercised in using this agent, and risks and benefits should be discussed with the patients.

7.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 86(1):384-390, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1716343

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the COVID 19 pandemic, all the universities worldwide are experiencing a paradigm shift to online learning. Baby boomers and Generation X need to cope with the challenging transformation, so an emerging need for a faculty development program was needed towards achieving the goal of that transformation. Objectives: To describe and assess an inverted virtual faculty development program (VFDP) that was designed and implemented for the first time in the school to equip educators with the necessary technology competencies for remote online learning. Methods: An interventional prospective study held in a university setting post need analysis conduction to prioritize the required technological skills for faculty members. The program was designed to integrate five essential skills needed to by faculty members to teach remotely. The intervention comprised attending five virtual sessions after watching a pre-distributed material, then evaluated using the Kirkpatrick model. Results: Almost 81% of faculty members completed the program and 80 % of participants were satisfied with the content of the program. There was a statistically significant difference between the perceived ability of the participants to share and record video lectures before and after the VFDP (p value <0.001). The percentage of the departments that applied the program components showed that 96% of them were able to record lectures. In addition, 80% of them were able to develop online quizzes. Conclusion: The inverted virtual faculty development program (VFDP) has supported the participating faculty in developing their needed technological competencies required to bridge the gap of remote teaching/learning. © 2022, Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine. All rights reserved.

9.
Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ; 16:320-325, 2021.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1660909
10.
Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia ; 37(1):256-260, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1254205

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the role for preoperative CT chest scans in suspected COVID-19 patients requiring emergent surgery. Design: Retrospective - observational. Participants: A total of 98 patients admitted for emergency surgery with COVID-19 infection and underwent preoperative CT chest scanning. Main outcome measurements: Incidence of clinical symptoms of COVID-19 infection upon presentation, imaging characteristics in chest CT and semi-quantitative CT severity score. Results: The median age of the study cohorts was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR): 40-60 years) and 52/98 (53.1%) were males. The most common symptoms were fever (80.6%) and cough (65.3%). 50/98 had positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR test prior to CT scan, while 48/98 had positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) result returned after imaging. The imaging characteristics were bilateral infiltrates on CT of 90/98, with 70/98 of infiltrates located peripherally and 28/98 located peripherally and centrally. The most common disease pattern was ground-glass opacities, observed in 95/98. The median total COVID-19 CT severity score was 7 (IQR: 4-14), corresponding to 5-25% global lung involvement. Conclusion: Patients with mild symptomatic COVID-19 in this study displayed CT evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Preoperative CT imaging should be considered for identifying suspected active SARS-CoV-2 cases in resource limited environments with high community spread, to aid in resource allocation and personal protective equipment (PPE) rationing.

11.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.08.19.20178129

ABSTRACT

Background. Since its emergence in late December 2019 and its declaration as a global pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, the novel coronavirus disease known as (COVID-19) has attracted global attention. The process of modeling and predicting the pandemic behavior became crucial as the different states needed accurate predictions to be able to adopt suitable policies to minimize the pressure on their health care systems. Researchers have employed modified variants of classical SIR/SEIR models to describe the dynamics of this pandemic. In this paper, after proven effective in numerous countries, a modified variant of SEIR is implemented to predict the behavior of COVID-19 in Egypt and other countries in the Middle East. Methods. We built MATLAB simulations to fit the real data of COVID-19 Active, recovered and death Cases in Egypt, Qatar and Saudi Arabia to the modified SEIR model via Nelder-Mead algorithm to be able to estimate the future dynamics of the pandemic. Findings. We estimate several characteristics of COVID-19 future dynamics in Egypt, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. We also estimate that the pandemic will resolve in the countries under investigation in February 2021, January 2021 and 28th August 2020 with total death cases of 9,742, 5,600 and 185 and total cases of 187,600, 490,000 and 120,000 respectively.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Death
12.
Saudi J Anaesth ; 14(3): 365-369, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608621

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 is a global pandemic, which affects around 2million individuals with a high death rate that exceeds 90,000 death cases across the globe. The Saudi Heart Association and the national cardiopulmonary resuscitation committee developed a taskforce to discuss the magnitude of clinical situation and CPR management on COVID-19 patients in a prehospital and in-hospital settings. Meanwhile, the taskforce aims to develop a nation-wide clinical guidance to be used by health care workers and untrained laypersons to resuscitate COVID-19 suspected and diagnosed patients.

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