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1.
IEEE Access ; JOUR: 1-1,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097588

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has imposed unprecedented restrictions on the society which has compelled the organizations to work ambidextrously. Consequently, the organizations need to go continuously monitor the performance of their business process and improve them. To facilitate that, this study has put-forth the idea of augmenting business process models with end-user feedback and proposed a machine learning based approach (AugProMo) to automatically identify correspondences between end-user feedback and elements of process models. In particular, we have generated three valuable resources, process models, feedback corpus and gold standard benchmark correspondences. Furthermore, 2880 experiments are performed to identify the most effective combination of word embeddings, feature vectors, data balancing and machine learning techniques. The study concludes that the proposed approach is effective for augmenting business process models with end-user feedback. Author

2.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ; JOUR:6-7, 64(Supplement 4).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088158

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective(s): Delayed diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP) limits access to early interventions when the infant brain has the most neuroplastic potential, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). The 2017 clinical guideline on the early diagnosis of CP outlines best practice tools to support diagnosis. We aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing these tools for early detection of CP in Bangladesh. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Study Participants & Setting: Neonates admitted to a regional tertiary hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Bangladesh with major risk factors for CP (preterm birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy/neonatal encephalopathy (HIE/NE), neonatal sepsis and/or severe jaundice/kernicterus) were enrolled. Materials/Methods: A physician identified eligible neonates via physical assessment, medical record review and parent interview using a risk factor questionnaire developed for this study. General Movements Assessment (GMA) were completed at the time of recruitment (writhing period) and 13 weeks corrected age (fidgety age);neuroimaging data collected from the NICU;and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) conducted at 12 months corrected age. Due to the impact of COVID-19, a proportion of the cohort were not able to have GMA fidgety videos completed and the first HINE assessment was delayed to 12 months. GMA data is not currently reported in this . Result(s): A total of 227 high risk neonates were recruited between November 2019 to March 2020. All neonates had evidence for prematurity and infection/sepsis on physical examination, 83.7% (n=190) had HIE/NE and 14.5% (n=33) had severe jaundice/kernicterus. Only 1.8% (n=4) had cranial ultrasound and none had magnetic resonance imaging. Of the surviving (76.7%, n=174) infants, 77.0% (n=134) were assessed at 12 months. Among them, writhing videos and fidgety videos were previously collected for 100% (n=134) and 29.9% (n=40) respectively. At 12 months, 32.1% (n=43) infants were identified to have CP of whom 90.7% (n=39) infants had global HINE score <66 (sensitivity 90.7% and specificity: 97.8%). Conclusions/Significance: Despite study attrition and the impact of COVID-19, it was feasible to collect GMA videos in inpatient setting and infants at risk of CP were diagnosed as early as 12 months in a LMIC. Use of the structured risk factor questionnaire and adherence to best practice guidelines ensured a highly sensitive screening process and diagnostic outcomes. Our interim findings demonstrate the scope of this simple and scalable protocol in supporting clinicians for the early identification of infants with CP to facilitate early intervention and shared decision-making with families for best outcomes in LMICs.

3.
Springer Series in Supply Chain Management ; 17:149-163, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075186

ABSTRACT

The unusual and dynamic global political situation, man-made and natural disasters, and an upsurge in economic instability internationally are some of the key factors disrupting the global business operations and their supply chains. Similarly, a new dimension known as the fourth industrial revolution is inducing a rapidly changing technological world and its adoption race has also started showing its impact on company’s value chains and started setting new standards by creating technological competitive advantages. Therefore, it is imminent for companies to brace themselves for technological, organizational, and environmental changes. Recent events like the COVID-19 pandemic has perfectly showcased the fragility of businesses operations and over-reliance on global supply chains. Nonetheless, a similar situation has also taught us that being resilient, flexible, and agile in such unprecedented circumstances could be beneficial for the organizations. Thus, this chapter precisely articulates the importance of resilience entering into the fourth industrial revolution and presents, how supply chain visibility, collaboration, flexibility, and control could be the ingredients of the winning recipe for businesses. Furthermore, Industry 4.0 promises to revolutionize how the supply chain operates. It provides companies with several predictive capabilities of their supply chains helping them to mitigate and anticipate any risk or disruption caused by the changes in the external environment. Thus, resilience combined with Industry 4.0 could redefine corporations’ operations and supply chain forever. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(2): 1192, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070540

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic drastically changed daily life. Lockdown measures resulted in reduced traffic mobility and, subsequently, a changed acoustic environment. The exceptional lockdown was used to analyze its impact on the urban acoustic environment using ecoacoustic indices. Using data from 22 automated sound recording devices located in 9 land use categories (LUCs) in Bochum, Germany, the normalized difference soundscape index (NDSI) and Bioacoustics index (BIO) were explored. The NDSI quantifies the proportion of anthropophonic to biophonic sounds, and BIO quantifies the total sound activities of biological sources. The mean differences and standard deviation (SD) were calculated 5 weeks before and 5 weeks during the first lockdown. Pronounced peaks for the NDSI and BIO before lockdown that diminished markedly during lockdown were observed, however, with distinct differences in terms of the LUC. The mean NDSI increased from 0.00 (SD = 0.43) to 0.15 (SD = 0.50), the mean BIO decreased from 4.74 (SD = 2.64) to 4.03 (SD = 2.66). Using the NDSI and BIO together reveals that changes of the acoustic environment during lockdown are mainly driven by decreased anthropophonic sound sources. These results suggest that further studies are needed to tailor ecoacoustic indices more accurately to conditions of the urban environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Acoustics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1212-1212, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068365
6.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(4):1278-1282, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067723

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess faculty perception regarding the transition from traditional to online classrooms and highlight the problems and devise possible solutions for these problems. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Two Public and five Private Sector Medical Institutes in the month of September 2020. Methodology: An online questionnaire comprising three sections, including consent, personal information and questions related to the experience regarding online teaching, was designed. The questionnaire was posted online, and medical faculty of public and private sector medical universities in Karachi were invited to participate in the study. As a result, the MBBS, BDS, and DPT teaching faculty of two public sectors and three private sector medical colleges/universities who took the online classes participated in the study. Result: 41.2% response rate was recorded. 42 (61.8%) participants felt training given by their institutes was satisfactory. 67 (98.5%) of participants felt that a user-friendly system was employed for online teaching. 61 (89.7%) participants changed teaching strategy, although 49 (72.1%) were unprepared. 67 (98.5%) participants felt student feedback was essential, and 86.8% felt the interaction was vital. 66 (97.1%) participants said clinical teaching was compromised. Student behavioural issues were identified by 22 (32.3%) of faculty members. Problems with technology was faced by 33 (48.5%) participants. Conclusion: Online teaching and learning is expected to continue in the new normal post-COVID-19 era. The transition was difficult, but faculty training programs promise improvement to continue this strategy in future. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

7.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057463

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic revealed a multidimensional impact on mental health due to health concerns, social distancing and lockdowns, job loss, and limits in institutional support. Accordingly, COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already high prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Hence, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND to identify their ongoing health, including psychological wellbeing and support needs. The current study examines the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in Saudi Arabia. Methodology A cross-sectional national study design was utilized as a part of an international consortium using an online Arabic survey. Data were collected from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development beneficiaries from May to July 2020. The sample consisted of 1,848 parents of children with SEND aged between 1 and 18 years (mean = 9.66;SD = 4.31). A descriptive and bivariant analysis is reported. Results Parental worries on all those concerns when the pandemic started were significantly higher than before the pandemic, p < 0.050. Parental-perceived general anxiety had risen significantly across time, p < 0.001, and their perceived anxiety when the pandemic started exceeded their anxiety before the pandemic, p < 0.001. The general anxiety of children with SEND had risen significantly across time (from before the pandemic to when it had started to during the pandemic), p < 0.001. The children's general worries at the start of the pandemic had correlated significantly and positively with their anxiety, adaptive, maladaptive, and coping efficacies, and parental anxiety scores, p < 0.010 each. Conclusion Anxiety levels were high in SEND and their caregivers before and during COVID-19. At the start of the pandemic, the anxiety, adaptive, maladaptive, coping efficacies, and parental anxiety scores of children with SEND were significantly and favorably correlated. These findings support the notion of SEND-specific anxiety and patterns of coping in SEND and their caregivers. The notion also attests to the institutional support required for this specifically vulnerable population during epidemics.

8.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(4):1355-1358, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057200

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the respiratory complications of COVID-19 among patients with rheumatological conditions taking bDMARDs and csDMARDs at Pak Emirates Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Comparative prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi Pakistan from Mar to May 2020. Methodology: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 on polymerase chain reaction having previously rheumatological conditions managed either with bDMARD or cs DMARD were included in the study. They were followed up for three weeks after the positive polymerase chain reaction. Complications leading to the use of oxygen or ICU support or death were compared in both groups of patients. Results: A total of 82 patients with any rheumatological condition managed either with bDMARD or csDMARD tested positive for covid-19 on polymerase chain reaction and were included in the final analysis. 30 (36.6%) patients were taking bDMARDs while 52 (63.4%) were taking csDMARD. In addition, 4 (4.8%) low dose oxygen therapy, 5 (6.1%) required moderate dose oxygen therapy, while 5 (6.1%) required severe dose oxygen therapy or intensive care unit support. 2 (2.4%) patients died within the three weeks. The requirement of moderate or severe dose oxygen and intensive care unit support was found statistically significantly more in the group taking csDMARDS. Conclusion: The presence of complications of COVID-19 and the requirement of oxygen and intensive care unit support were present in some of the patients taking DMARDs. Among the DMARDs, bDMARDs were less linked with complications, but large studies with better design required better results. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

9.
Handbook of Research on the Impacts and Implications of COVID-19 on the Tourism Industry ; : 603-626, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055612

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to impact our daily chores of work, education, travel, and food. In this chapter, historical anecdote of SARS pandemic of 2003 is compared with the current COVID-19 with the timeline. The emergence and the primary mode of airborne transmission of the SARS CoV2 that has been incriminated in the outbreaks of meat processing plants is discussed. Considering the WHO report on the likelihood of four possible pathways in the introduction of SARS CoV2 that included the introduction through cold food chain products, advisories for owners, employees, and guests in the hospitality, food, and beverage industry are provided that emphasize on food safety through HACCP food management systems. The approaches of pretravel consultation, vaccination, and adhering to good behaviors of physical distancing, hand hygiene, and face masking are detailed to anticipate early bounce back of the tourism, hospitality, food, and beverage industries. © 2021, IGI Global.

10.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1212, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046713

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the WHO classified COVID-19 a pandemic, vaccines have been developed to minimize the SARS-CoV-2 virus's incidence around the world. [1] For better understanding of the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines the identification of the localized and systemic side-effects after vaccination is important because the side effects between in a real-world community setting than reported in phase 3 trials, mostly minor in severity, and self-limiting. [2-5] Objective: To identify pattern of adverse effects of covid-19 vaccine among the people of Bangladesh. Methods: This follow up study was conducted among 2345 vaccinated people at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from June 2021 to December 2021. Data was collected by face to face and telephone interviewing through a structured questionnaire for 7 days daily for local effect and upto 28 days for systemic side effects after vaccination and SPSS software version 25.0 was used for statistical analysis Results: Among the total participants 2345, Most of the people were male 1565 (66.7%). 17.1% of people had local side effects. About 33.1% participants were experienced systemic side effects. Among the local side effects pain was more common and chill and shiver in systemic effects respectively 14.3% and 2%. About 89.1% participants were with co morbidity. Male were predominant and middle aged were more than older people. Conclusion: This study portrayed a precise scenario about the adverse effects of vaccine. The adverse effects of vaccine should be evidence based. Further education and research needed to encourage on evidenced based vaccination among the people. This was generated information for the clinical care providers to take necessary steps as a precaution in treating the adverse effects of any patients and the policy makers to take necessary steps in related to vaccine to handle this pandemic.

11.
Health science reports ; 5(5), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2044842

ABSTRACT

Background Timely identification of patients at risk of worse clinical outcomes is vital in managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). The neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio (NLR) calculated from complete blood count can predict the degree of systemic inflammation and guide therapy accordingly. Hence, we did a study to investigate the role of NLR value on intensive care unit (ICU) admission in predicting clinical outcomes of critically ill COVID‐19 patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records of COVID‐19 patients admitted to ICUs at Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Qatar, from March 7, 2020 to July 18, 2020. Patients with an NLR equal to or higher than the cut‐off value derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve were compared to those with an NLR value below the cut‐off. The primary outcome studied was all‐cause ICU mortality. The secondary outcomes evaluated were the requirement of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay (LOS). Results Five hundred and nineteen patients were admitted to ICUs with severe COVID‐19 infection during the study period. Overall, ICU mortality in the study population was 14.6% (76/519). NLR on ICU admission of ≥6.55 was obtained using Youden's index to predict ICU mortality, with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 41%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with age ≥60 years (p < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.03), malignancy (p < 0.002), and NLR ≥ 6.55 (p < 0.003). There was also a significant association between the requirement of mechanical ventilation (34.7% vs. 51.8%, p < 0.001) and increased ICU LOS (8 vs. 10 days, p < 0.01) in patients with ICU admission NLR ≥ 6.55. Conclusion Higher NLR values on ICU admission are associated with worse clinical outcomes in critically ill COVID‐19 patients.

12.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(5): e844, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041220

ABSTRACT

Background: Timely identification of patients at risk of worse clinical outcomes is vital in managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) calculated from complete blood count can predict the degree of systemic inflammation and guide therapy accordingly. Hence, we did a study to investigate the role of NLR value on intensive care unit (ICU) admission in predicting clinical outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records of COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs at Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Qatar, from March 7, 2020 to July 18, 2020. Patients with an NLR equal to or higher than the cut-off value derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve were compared to those with an NLR value below the cut-off. The primary outcome studied was all-cause ICU mortality. The secondary outcomes evaluated were the requirement of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay (LOS). Results: Five hundred and nineteen patients were admitted to ICUs with severe COVID-19 infection during the study period. Overall, ICU mortality in the study population was 14.6% (76/519). NLR on ICU admission of ≥6.55 was obtained using Youden's index to predict ICU mortality, with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 41%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with age ≥60 years (p < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.03), malignancy (p < 0.002), and NLR ≥ 6.55 (p < 0.003). There was also a significant association between the requirement of mechanical ventilation (34.7% vs. 51.8%, p < 0.001) and increased ICU LOS (8 vs. 10 days, p < 0.01) in patients with ICU admission NLR ≥ 6.55. Conclusion: Higher NLR values on ICU admission are associated with worse clinical outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

13.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 16: 2759-2764, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039543

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We describe and validate a low-cost simulation model for practicing anterior lens capsule continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Methods: A simulation model for CCC was developed from widely available low-cost materials. Ophthalmologists attending the annual scientific meeting of the Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt, were asked to perform a five CCC model task and then anonymously answer a questionnaire that assessed the realism and training utility of the model using a five-point Likert scale (1 = unacceptable, 2 = poor, 3 = acceptable, 4 = favorable and 5 = excellent). Results: Twenty-seven ophthalmologists completed the task and the anonymous questionnaire. Overall, participants felt that the model simulated CCC step in cataract surgery well (mean: 3.5) and was comparable to other kinds of CCC simulation models (mean: 3.3). The model scored highly for its overall educational value (mean: 4.00) and for enlarging a small CCC (mean:3.7), while the feasibility of this model in practicing the management of a runaway leading edge of CCC scored 2.9. Conclusion: This model may provide an alternative method for training for CCC and other anterior lens capsule-related maneuvers. This option may be particularly helpful for residency training programs with limited access to virtual reality simulators or commercially available synthetic eye models.

14.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(3):S2-S3, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2036131

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy (RT) to doses of 24-30 Gy is used for the treatment of indolent B-cell lymphoma (BCL);however, significant acute and late ocular effects are common. We aimed to develop a response adapted (RA) strategy that maintains excellent disease outcomes but reduces orbital morbidity. We performed a phase II prospective study of a RA strategy in 50 patients (pts) with stage I-IV orbital indolent BCL. Pts were treated with ultra-low dose (ULD) RT to 4 Gy in 2 fractions and assessed in 3-month intervals for response. Pts with persistent orbital lymphoma were offered an additional 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Pts that had a complete response (CR) to ULD RT were observed. We also evaluated this treatment strategy in a separate 55 pt retrospective cohort. From July 2015-January 2021 51 pts were enrolled. Fifty evaluable pts had follow-up for study inclusion. The median age was 63 years (29-88);62% were female (n=31). Pts had MALT lymphoma (n=32, 64%), follicular lymphoma (FL, n=16, 32%) and low grade BCL (n=6, 12%). Most pts (62%, n=31) had stage I disease limited to one (n=28) or both (n=3) orbits. Pts had newly diagnosed (n=36, 72%);relapsed (n=9, 18%) and refractory lymphoma (n=5, 10%). At a median follow up of 35 months [95% CI 22.2 – 37.4], 90% of pts (n=45) experienced a CR to RA RT, including 44 pts that had a CR to ULD RT (median time to CR 3.4 months) and 1 pt that had a CR after an additional 20 Gy. No local recurrences were observed. Treatment was well tolerated with no grade ≥3 toxicity. Five pts did not have a CR to planned RA therapy including 1 pt that refused additional RT, one pt treated with rituximab, one pt that had a PR on initial evaluation but has not returned for subsequent in person evaluations due to COVID, one pt being observed with stable disease and a final pt that received an additional 20 Gy to the orbit that has a persistent stable mass after the 20 Gy. In a planned subset analysis of 26 pts with newly diagnosed stage 1 disease (MALT, n=22;FL, n=3;low grade BCL, n=1);92.3% (n=24) had a CR to RA RT, with one pt requiring an additional 20 Gy. For all 26 pts with newly diagnosed stage 1 disease, the 3-year freedom from distant relapse rate was 90.4% with 3 distant relapses (contralateral orbit, n=2;paratracheal nodes, n=1). The median follow-up among the 55 pts (MALT, n=38;FL, n=13;low grade B-cell lymphoma, n=4) treated in the retrospective cohort between March 2013 and October 2021 was 28.7 months (95% CI 21.2 - 36.1);98% (n=54) of pts had a CR with RA RT, including 2 pts with a CR after an additional 20 Gy. The remaining pt went on to receive systemic therapy in lieu of additional RT for persistent disease. Among the 54 pts that had a CR with RA RT there was one local relapse in a pt with conjunctival FL 27.8 months after experiencing a CR to ULD RT. This pt received 20 Gy with resolution of the locally relapsed disease. We observed excellent disease control with negligible toxicity in the first prospective study assessing this novel approach of RA ULD RT for pts with indolent B-cell lymphoma. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Sleep Med ; 100: 7-23, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036517

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There have been no previous meta-analytic studies that have looked at the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in different COVID-19 groups using a single assessment instrument to evaluate insomnia symptoms while maintaining data homogeneity. The current review's associated goal is to undertake an individual participant data (IPD) analysis to further investigate past meta-analyses, a method that has been shown to be more robust than standard meta-analyses. MEETHODS: Only studies that used the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to assess insomnia are used in this analysis. The IPDMA was performed and registered in PROSPERO in compliance with the PRISMA IPD Statement (CRD42021275817). From November 2019 to August 2021, researchers explored seventeen databases and six preprint services for relevant studies. RESULTS: The pooled estimate of insomnia symptoms (subthreshold and clinically significant) was 52.57%. An estimated 16.66% of the population suffered from clinically significant insomnia, of which 13.75% suffered from moderate insomnia, and 2.50% suffered from severe insomnia. The different populations' grouping had no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Insomnia symptoms did not appear to be associated with age or sex. CONCLUSION: Our findings imply that the COVID-19 pandemic is linked to a significant rise in subthreshold insomnia symptoms, but not to moderate or severe insomnia. Educating people from all walks of life about the importance of sleep and the risk of acquiring insomnia symptoms during this or future pandemics should be a top concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sleep
16.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2033880

ABSTRACT

Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged continuously, challenging the effectiveness of vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments. Moreover, the possibility of the appearance of a new betacoronavirus with high transmissibility and high fatality is reason for concern. In this study, we used a natively paired yeast display technology, combined with next-generation sequencing (NGS) and massive bioinformatic analysis to perform a comprehensive study of subdomain specificity of natural human antibodies from two convalescent donors. Using this screening technology, we mapped the cross-reactive responses of antibodies generated by the two donors against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other betacoronaviruses. We tested the neutralization potency of a set of the cross-reactive antibodies generated in this study and observed that most of the antibodies produced by these patients were non-neutralizing. We performed a comparison of the specific and non-specific antibodies by somatic hypermutation in a repertoire-scale for the two individuals and observed that the degree of somatic hypermutation was unique for each patient. The data from this study provide functional insights into cross-reactive antibodies that can assist in the development of strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and divergent betacoronaviruses.

17.
J Pers Med ; 12(9)2022 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033038

ABSTRACT

Widely available effective drugs to treat coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are still limited. Various studies suggested the potential contribution of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants to alleviate the clinical course of COVID-19. Initially, SSRI antidepressant-attributed anti-COVID-19 activity was attributed to their direct agonistic or indirect serotonin-mediated stimulation of sigma-1 receptors (Sig1-R). Thereafter, attention was drawn to the property of SSRI antidepressants to decrease ceramide production, as functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramides are cell membrane waxy lipids formed by sphingosine and a fatty acid, playing a major role in receptor signaling and infection. In COVID-19 patients, ceramide production is increased due to acid sphingomyelinase activation. Here, we aimed to review the relationships between bradykinins and the proposed pathways supporting SSRI antidepressant-attributed effectiveness in COVID-19. In COVID-19 patients, bradykinin receptor-B1 stimulation is enhanced following the downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, which is responsible for the inactivation of des-Arg9-bradykinin, a bradykinin metabolite, contrasting with the decrease in bradykinin receptor-B2 (BDKRB2) stimulation, which results from the inhibition of cathepsin L, a kininogenase involved in bradykinin production and present at the infection site. Sig1-R stimulation modulates the inflammatory response by regulating cytokine production and counterbalances COVID-19-attributed BDKRB2 inhibition by potentiating its effects on the cytosolic calcium concentration. Moreover, the beneficial effects obtained with acid sphingomyelinase inhibition are parallel to those expected with BDKRB2 stimulation in COVID-19. Altogether, these findings suggest that one ultimate pathway of SSRI antidepressant-attributed anti-COVID-19 activity is the potentiation of BDKRB2 effects shown to be inhibited in COVID-19. In conclusion, SSRI antidepressants are able to interact positively with the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in COVID-19. However, their exact benefits in preventing morbidities or improving the outcome in COVID-19 patients remain unknown.

18.
Nonlinear Studies ; 29(3):851-863, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027130

ABSTRACT

When an epidemic disease emerges, many strategies are taken into account to restrict its spread. The application of these strategies influences the dynamic nature of the spread of the disease. In this study, we have analyzed the dynamical behavior of the spread of COVID-19 with different strategies such as health consciousness, vaccination, and isolation with the help of a mathematical model. We have tested the positivity and boundedness of the model. The basic reproduction number of the model was obtained. Conditions for local stability for the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium have been obtained in this study. Dulac’s criterion has been applied to check if the model had a periodic orbit. Nelder-Mead algorithm has been used to find optimized values of the unknown biological parameters of the model by using COVID-19 data of Italy. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters in basic reproduction number has also been conducted. Finally, Range-Kutta 4th order has been utilized to solve the model numerically and obtain graphical representation of the dynamic behavior of the model. The presented study suggests emphasizing on the health consciousness such as wearing face-masks, maintaining social distancing, etc. as well as vaccinating the population in order to control the spread of the disease. From the results of numerical simulations, it is confirmed that, if 25% of the entire population maintains health consciousness and gets vaccinated also, and at least 5% of the population gets vaccinated, the spread of the disease can be brought under control within 200 days © CSP - Cambridge, UK;I&S - Florida, USA, 2022

19.
Computer Systems Science and Engineering ; 45(1):869-886, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026580

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID -19) is the current global buzzword, putting the world at risk. The pandemic’s exponential expansion of infected COVID-19 patients has challenged the medical field’s resources, which are already few. Even established nations would not be in a perfect position to manage this epidemic correctly, leaving emerging countries and countries that have not yet begun to grow to address the problem. These problems can be solved by using machine learning models in a realistic way, such as by using computer-aided images during medical examinations. These models help predict the effects of the disease outbreak and help detect the effects in the coming days. In this paper, Multi-Features Decease Analysis (MFDA) is used with different ensemble classifiers to diagnose the disease’s impact with the help of Computed Tomography (CT) scan images. There are various features associated with chest CT images, which help know the possibility of an individual being affected and how COVID-19 will affect the persons suffering from pneumonia. The current study attempts to increase the precision of the diagnosis model by evaluating various feature sets and choosing the best combination for better results. The model’s performance is assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and the Confusion Matrix. It is observed from the resultant outcome that the performance of the proposed model has exhibited better efficient. © 2023 CRL Publishing. All rights reserved.

20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pandemic COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), the prognosis of patients has been determined using clinical data and CT (computed tomography) scans, but it is still unclear whether chest CT characteristics are correlated to COVID-19 severity. AIM: To explore the potential association between clinical data and 25-point CT score and investigate their predictive significance in COVID-19-positive patients at Fayoum University Hospital in Egypt. METHODS: This study was conducted on 252 Egyptian COVID-19 patients at Fayoum University Hospital in Egypt. The patients were classified into two groups: a mild group (174 patients) and a severe group (78 patients). The results of clinical laboratory data, and CT scans of severe and mild patients, were collected, analyzed, and compared. RESULTS: The severe group show high significance levels of CRP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil percent, and heart rate (HR) than the mild group. Lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, and decreased oxygen saturation (SpO2) were the most observed abnormalities in severe COVID-19 patients. Lymphopenia, low SpO2 and albumin levels, elevated serum LDH, ferritin, urea, and CRP levels were found to be significantly correlated with severity CT score (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The clinical severity of COVID-19 and the CT score are highly correlated. Our findings indicate that the CT scoring system can help to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes and has a strong correlation with clinical laboratory testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Egypt/epidemiology , Ferritins , Hospitals, University , Humans , Lymphopenia , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Urea
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