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1.
Cytotherapy ; 25(6 Supplement):S245-S246, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245241

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: With larger accessibility and increased number of patients being treated with CART cell therapy, real-world toxicity continues to remain a significant challenge to its widespread adoption. We have previously shown that allogeneic umbilical cord blood derived (UCB) regulatory T cells (Tregs) can resolve uncontrolled inflammation and can treat acute and immune mediated lung injury in a xenogenic model as well as in patients suffering from COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unique properties of UCB Tregs including: i) lack of plasticity when exposed to inflammatory micro-environments;ii) no requirement for HLA matching;iii) long shelf life of cryopreserved Tregs;and iv) immediate product availability for on demand treatment, makes them an attractive source for treating acute inflammatory syndromes. Therefore, we hypothesized that add-on therapy with UCB derived Tregs may resolve uncontrolled inflammation responsible for CART cell therapy associated toxicity. Methods, Results & Conclusion(s): UCB Tregs were added in 1:1 ratio to CART cells, where no interference in their ability to kill CD19+ Raji cells, was detected at different ratios : 8:1 (80.4% vs. 81.5%);4:1 (62.0% vs. 66.2%);2:1 (50.1% vs. 54.7%);1:1 (35.4% vs. 44.1%) (Fig 1A). In a xenogenic B cell lymphoma model, multiple injections of Tregs were administered after CART injection (Fig 1B), which did not impact distribution of CD8+ T effector cells (Fig 1C) or CART cells cells (Fig 1D) in different organs. No decline in the CAR T levels was observed in the Tregs recipients (Fig 1E). Specifically, no difference in tumor burden was detected between the two arms (Fig 2A). No tumor was detected in CART+Tregs in liver (Fig 2B) or bone marrow (Fig 2C). A corresponding decrease in multiple inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood was observed in CART+Tregs when compared to CART alone (Fig 2D). Here we show "proof of concept" for add-on therapy with Tregs to mitigate hyper-inflammatory state induced by CART cells without interference in their on-target anti-tumor activity. The timing of Tregs administration after CART cells have had sufficient time for forming synapse with tumor cells allows for preservation of their anti-tumor cytotoxicity, such that the infused Tregs home to the areas of tissue damage to bind to the resident antigen presenting cells which in turn collaborate with Tregs to resolve inflammation. Such differential distribution of cells allow for a Treg "cooling blanket" and lays ground for clinical study. [Figure presented]Copyright © 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy

2.
Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing ; 37(1):73-90, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20241577

ABSTRACT

In the past few years, social media and online news platforms have played an essential role in distributing news content rapidly. Consequently. verification of the authenticity of news has become a major challenge. During the COVID-19 outbreak, misinformation and fake news were major sources of confusion and insecurity among the general public. In the first quarter of the year 2020, around 800 people died due to fake news relevant to COVID-19. The major goal of this research was to discover the best learning model for achieving high accuracy and performance. A novel case study of the Fake News Classification using ELECTRA model, which achieved 85.11% accuracy score, is thus reported in this manuscript. In addition to that, a new novel dataset called COVAX-Reality containing COVID-19 vaccinerelated news has been contributed. Using the COVAX-Reality dataset, the performance of FNEC is compared to several traditional learning models i.e., Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), Passive Aggressive Classifier (PAC), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Bi-directional LSTM (Bi-LSTM) and Bi-directional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT). For the evaluation of FNEC, standard metrics (Precision, Recall, Accuracy, and F1-Score) were utilized.

3.
Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences ; 21(1):86-95, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20231882

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased use of online resources in educational institutions, making e-learning a necessity. This study aimed to investigate how students from four colleges at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia perceived and accepted e-learning and e-evaluation. Methods: 236 students participated in a cross-sectional study conducted in October 2021. The students completed a well-constructed questionnaire with 22 closed-ended questions divided into five domains. The students rated their answers on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 to 5. To analyze the collected data, the researchers utilized SPSS (v26). Result: Out of the total 236 students who participated in the study, most (30.5%) from the College of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (59.8%) used laptops, while 78% of students had a favorable impression of e-learning. Students' perceptions were focused on whether e-learning and e-evaluation methods helped them understand the study material smoothly and clearly. Among the students, 27% strongly agreed, 25% agreed, 16% were neutral, 11% disagreed, and 11% strongly disagreed. Additionally, 28% of the students strongly agreed, and 34% agreed that exam questions during e-evaluation were appropriate and comprehensive. Although online learning may result in less social contact, a lack of social presence, and difficulties in communication harmonization, e-learning still has some positive effects on students. It is considered a powerful platform, especially during emergencies or for those unable to attend in-person classes to complete their studies. The study has significant implications for higher education institutions, especially during emergencies, where online learning is necessary. Future research can further explore the factors that affect student perceptions and acceptance of elearning and e-evaluation and how to improve them. © 2023, Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences. All Rights Reserved.

4.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):633-634, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20231881

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn 2018 NICE and NHS England approved one year of weekly subcutaneous tocilizumab for use in relapsing or refractory GCA [1, 2]. During the COVID pandemic NHS England allowed extended use of tocilizumab in selected high risk patients [3]. This extension ended in March 2022. This has created a cohort of patients who are now no longer treated with tocilizumab and may be at risk of GCA flare. Currently, NHS England does not allow retreatment with tocilizumab.ObjectivesThis service evaluation used an intention-to-treat approach to retrospectively evaluate patients, who were ratified to receive tocilizumab for GCA according to the NICE guidance. We aimed to describe this cohort of patients for whom the use of tocilizumab had been approved, and their outcomes in terms of complications and disease control.Methods49 patients were ratified to receive tocilizumab between May 2019 and April 2022 by a specialist multidisciplinary team at a single tertiary rheumatology center. Their response was assessed in terms of relapse rates, steroid usage and complications as described below.Results80% of the 49 cohort of patients consisted of females (Table 1). 55% of patients were diagnosed with GCA on combination of clinical history, laboratory and temporal artery duplex findings. 94% (46/49) had at least a week's course of tocilizumab. Around half (51%) had relapsing disease. 6% had first dose as intravenous due to critical ischaemia. 27% (13/49) of patients developed complications whilst on treatment. Six developed cytopenia, 3 acquired infections and 4 stopped due to other reasons. As per guidelines, tocilizumab was stopped after 12 months in 25 patients (51%). 16% stopped treatment early due to complications. 18% had incomplete information. 10% had ongoing treatment. One patient died several months after finishing tocilizumab. 47% had methotrexate as DMARD therapy added prior to tocilizumab commencement (Figure 1). Out of 25 patients who completeted treatment, 24% (6/25) relapsed. 83% of these relapses were diagnosed on recurrence of symptoms and high inflammatory markers. In addition, 3 patients, who had tocilizumab suspended relapsed. 2/3 of these patients had treatment suspended due to infection. 5/9 relapse patients did not have preceding DMARD therapy. 22% (2/9) of relapse patients had PET-CT due to involvement of extra-cranial disease. 56% (5/9) relapsed following a median follow-up of 11 months. Of relapsed patients, seven were treated with increased dose of prednisolone and two patients received 6 months extension of tocilizumab with adequate tolerance and efficacy.ConclusionOur data shows good tolerability of tocilizumab and a 24% flare rate amongst patients who completed treatment. This is less than the 50% rate seen in GiACTA and other cohorts, where the majority of which occurred within 6 months of stopping treatment [4]. DMARD treatment may reduce relapse rate, but this will require further study. The data describing the efficacy of treatment beyond one year is limited [3]. However, with no established guidance for treating patients following tocilizumab, extension of treatment is a plausible option.References[1]Tocilizumab for treating giant cell arteritis, NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance, 18 April 2018. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta518/resources/tocilizumab-for-treating-giant-cell-arteritis-pdf-82606786726597[2]Stone J, Tuckwell K, Dimonaco S et al.Trial of Tocilizumab in Giant-Cell Arteritis. N Engl J Med 2017;377:317-328.[3]Regola F, Cerudelli E,Bosio G. Long-term treatment with tocilizumab in giant cell arteritis: efficacy and safety in a monocentric cohort of patients Rheumatology Adv Pract 2020;0:1–9.[4]Conway R, Putman MS, Mackie SL. Benchmarking tocilizumab use for giant cell arteritis. Rheumatol Adv Pract. 2022;6(2):rkac037.Figure 1.Table 1.GenderAge at time of diagnosisIndication for stopping treatmentMaleFemale50-5960-6970-7980-89Completed treatmentComplicationsOngoing treatmentIncomplete information18313162010251058Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8797, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235148

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir (MPV) is the first direct-acting oral antiviral drug that effectively decreases nasopharyngeal infections with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The stability of MPV was tested by subjecting the drug to various stress conditions. The drug is liable to oxidative, acidic, and alkaline degradation and showed significant stability against thermal degradation. Mass spectrometry identified the degradation products and guided suggestion of the degradation patterns. Interestingly, while inspecting the UV-absorption spectra, we observed no absorbance at 270 nm for the products of the three degradation pathways (c.f. intact MPV). Direct spectrophotometry seemed a solution that perfectly fit the purpose of the stability assay method in our case. It avoids sophisticated instrumentation and complex mathematical data manipulation. The method determined MPV accurately (100.32% ± 1.62) and selectively (99.49% ± 1.63) within the linear range of 1.50 × 10-5-4.0 × 10-4 M and down to a detection limit of 0.48 × 10-5 M. The proposed method is simple and does not require any preliminary separation or derivatization steps. The procedure proved its validity as per the ICH recommendations. The specificity was assessed in the presence of up to 90% degradation products. The study evaluated the greenness profile of the proposed analytical procedure using the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), the Analytical Eco-Scale, and the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI). The three metrics unanimously agreed that the developed procedure results in a greener profile than the reported method. The method investigated the degradation reactions' kinetics and evaluated the reaction order, rate constant, and half-life time for each degradation process.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Stability
6.
Curr Sleep Med Rep ; : 1-19, 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233276

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: Several studies have found that medical students have a significant prevalence of sleep issues, such as poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and inadequate sleep duration. The purpose of this review is to carefully evaluate the current research on sleep problems among medical students and, as a result, estimate the prevalence of these disturbances. The EMBASE, PsychINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science and retrieved article reference lists were rigorously searched and rated for quality. Random effects meta-analysis was performed to compute estimates. Recent Findings: The current meta-analysis revealed an alarming estimated pooled prevalence of poor sleep quality (K = 95, N = 54894) of 55.64% [95%CI 51.45%; 59.74%]. A total of 33.32% [95%CI 26.52%; 40.91%] of the students (K = 28, N = 10122) experienced excessive sleepiness during the day. The average sleep duration for medical students (K = 35, N = 18052) is only 6.5 h per night [95%CI 6.24; 6.64], which suggests that at least 30% of them get less sleep than the recommended 7-9 h per night. Summary: Sleep issues are common among medical students, making them a genuine problem. Future research should focus on prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at these groups. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40675-023-00258-5.

7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232192

ABSTRACT

The magnitude of post-COVID-19 syndrome was not thoroughly investigated. This study evaluated the quality of life and persistence of fatigue and physical symptoms of individuals post-COVID-19 compared with noninfected controls. The study included 965 participants; 400 had previous COVID-19 disease and 565 controls without COVID-19. The questionnaire collected data on comorbidities, COVID-19 vaccination, general health questions, and physical symptoms, in addition to validated measures of quality of life (SF-36 scale), fatigue (fatigue severity scale, FSS), and dyspnea grade. COVID-19 participants complained more frequently of weakness, muscle pain, respiratory symptoms, voice disorders, imbalance, taste and smell loss, and menstrual problems compared to the controls. Joint symptoms, tingling, numbness, hypo/hypertension, sexual dysfunction, headache, bowel, urinary, cardiac, and visual symptoms did not differ between groups. Dyspnea grade II-IV did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.116). COVID-19 patients scored lower on the SF-36 domains of role physical (p = 0.045), vitality (p < 0.001), reported health changes (p < 0.001), and mental-components summary (p = 0.014). FSS scores were significantly higher in COVID-19 participants (3 (1.8-4.3) vs. 2.6 (1.4-4); p < 0.001). COVID-19 effects could persist beyond the acute infection phase. These effects include changes in quality of life, fatigue, and persistence of physical symptoms.

8.
Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2321533

ABSTRACT

Herein, we present an experimental and theoretical drug–drug interaction study between nitazoxanide (NTZ) and azithromycin (AZT) in an aqueous solution. Interaction was studied by using UV/Vis, fluorescence, attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, while molecular docking studies were performed to establish the interaction computationally. A bright yellow color was observed when the two drugs interacted, giving a hyperchromic band at 420 nm. The rate of absorbance was linearly increased by increasing drug concentrations and in a time-dependent manner. Stability of the interaction complex (i.e., NTZ: AZT) was measured at variable temperatures (25–80°C), pH (5.0–10.0) and ionic strength (0.05–2.0 M NaCl), and not only proved stable but also retained antimicrobial potential with reduced cellular toxicity. Mole ratio and Job's method of continuous variations were used to establish the binding stoichiometry and found to be 2:1. The calculated binding constant (kb = 8,400 M−1) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG° = −22.4 KJ/mol) also suggested an energetically favorable interaction. FTIR spectra of NTZ: AZT complex in comparison with two drugs alone revealed significant interaction which was nicely complemented by molecular docking studies. Interaction was also successfully demonstrated in presence of carrier protein HSA and by spiking the two drugs in real samples of human plasma and urine. © 2023 The Chemical Society Located in Taipei & Wiley-VCH GmbH.

9.
4th International Conference on Sustainable Technologies for Industry 4.0, STI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2321437

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things revolution is transforming current healthcare practices by combining technological, economic, and social aspects. Since December 2019, the global spread of COVID19 has influenced the global economy. The COVID19 epidemic has forced governments all around the world to implement lockdowns to prevent viral infections. Wearing a face mask in a public location, according to survey results, greatly minimizes the risk of infection. The suggested robotics design includes an IoT solution for facemask detection, body temperature detection, an automatic dispenser for hand sanitizing, and a social distance monitoring system that can be used in any public space as a single IoT solution. Our goal was to use IoT-enabled technology to help prevent the spread of COVID19, with encouraging results and a future Smart Robot that Aids in COVID19 Prevention. Arduino NANO, MCU unit, ultrasonic sensor, IR sensor, temperature sensor, and buzzer are all part of our suggested implementation system. Our system's processing components, the Arduino UNO and MCU modules are all employed to process and output data. Countries with large populations, such as India and Bangladesh, as well as any other developing country, will benefit from using our cost-effective, trustworthy, and portable smart robots to effectively reduce COVID-19 viral transmission. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Eur Radiol ; 33(6): 3867-3877, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection is a systemic disease with various cardiovascular symptoms and complications. Cardiac MRI with late gadolinium enhancement is the modality of choice for the assessment of myocardial involvement. T1 and T2 mapping can increase diagnostic accuracy and improve further management. Our study aimed to evaluate the different aspects of myocardial damage in cases of COVID-19 infection using cardiac MRI. METHODS: This descriptive retrospective study included 86 cases, with a history of COVID-19 infection confirmed by positive RT-PCR, who met the inclusion criteria. Patients had progressive chest pain or dyspnoea with a suspected underlying cardiac cause, either by an abnormal electrocardiogram or elevated troponin levels. Cardiac MRI was performed with late contrast-enhanced (LGE) imaging, followed by T1 and T2 mapping. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients have elevated hsTnT with a median hsTnT value of 133 ng/L (IQR: 102 to 159 ng/L); normal value < 14 ng/L. Other sixty-two patients showed elevated hsTnI with a median hsTnI value of 1637 ng/L (IQR: 1340 to 2540 ng/L); normal value < 40 ng/L. CMR showed 52 patients with acute myocarditis, 23 with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and 11 with myocardial infarction. Invasive coronary angiography was performed only in selected patients. CONCLUSION: Different COVID-19-related cardiac injuries may cause similar clinical symptoms. Cardiac MRI is the modality of choice to differentiate between the different types of myocardial injury such as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and infection-related cardiomyopathy or even acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasculitis or oxygen-demand mismatch. KEY POINTS: • It is essential to detect early COVID-related cardiac injury using different cardiac biomarkers and cardiac imaging, as it has a significant impact on patient management and outcome. • Cardiac MRI is the modality of choice to differentiate between the different aspects of COVID-related myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Contrast Media , COVID-19/complications , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/adverse effects
11.
Virol J ; 20(1): 94, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic challenge spreading enormously within a few months. COVID-19 is characterized by the over-activation of the immune system causing cytokine storm. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway can regulate the immune response via interaction with various implicated cytokines. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has been shown to promote inflammation. Given the fact that coronavirus infections induce cytokines secretion leading to inflammatory lung injury, it has been suggested that H-FABP levels are affected by COVID-19 severity. Moreover, endotrophin (ETP), the cleavage product of collagen VI, may be an indicator of an overactive repair process and fibrosis, considering that viral infection may predispose or exacerbate existing respiratory conditions, including pulmonary fibrosis. This study aims to assess the prognostic capacity of circulating IGF-1, HFABP, and ETP, levels for COVID-19 severity progression in Egyptian patients. METHODS: The study cohort included 107 viral RNA-positive patients and an equivalent number of control individuals with no clinical signs of infection. Clinical assessments included profiling of CBC; serum iron; liver and kidney functions; inflammatory markers. Circulating levels of IGF-1; H-FABP, and ETP were estimated using the corresponding ELISA kits. RESULTS: No statistical difference in the body mass index was detected between the healthy and control groups, while the mean age of infected patients was significantly higher (P = 0.0162) than the control. Patients generally showed elevated levels of inflammatory markers including CRP and ESR concomitant with elevated serum ferritin; D dimer and procalcitonin levels, besides the COVID-19 characteristic lymphopenia and hypoxemia were also frequent. Logistic regression analysis revealed that oxygen saturation; serum IGF-1, and H-FABP can significantly predict the infection progression (P < 0.001 each). Both serum IGF-1 and H-FABP as well as O2 saturation showed remarkable prognostic potentials in terms of large AUC values, high sensitivity/specificity values, and wide confidence interval. The calculated threshold for severity prognosis was 25.5 ng/mL; 19.5 ng/mL, 94.5, % and for IGF-1, H-FABP, and O2 saturation; respectively. The calculated thresholds of serum IGF-1; H-FABP, and O2 saturation showed positive and negative value ranges of 79-91% and 72-97%; respectively, with 66-95%, 83-94% sensitivity, and specificity; respectively. CONCLUSION: The calculated cut-off values of serum IGF-1 and H-FABP represent a promising non-invasive prognostic tool that would facilitate the risk stratification in COVID-19 patients, and control the morbidity/mortality associated with progressive infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Humans , Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 , Prognosis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines/metabolism , Biomarkers
12.
Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction ; 7(1 CSCW), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2314292

ABSTRACT

Scholarly work interrogating time and temporality in CSCW predominantly focuses on the temporal coordination of work in high-resource settings and is usually based in Global North. This paper aims to complicate and complement this scholarship by investigating the temporal entanglements of digital humanitarian work with refugees and asylum seekers in Turkey during COVID-19. We interviewed 22 humanitarian workers to understand their experiences and concerns as well as strategies they employed to support refugees and immigrants at a distance. The data reveal the complex temporal, informational, and infrastructural dimensions of technologically-mediated refugee support work, challenging the trope of "pivot to remote work", as popular in western countries. Our findings contribute to the CSCW research on the theory of anticipation work and its relationship with the concept of collaborative rhythms to explicate the relational and situated aspects of the temporal experiences of humanitarian workers in low-resource settings. © 2023 ACM.

13.
Urban Climate ; 47, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310523

ABSTRACT

With the increasing tension on the global sustainable environment in the urban areas, it is essential to monitor the airborne pollutants and understand the underlying factors that can trigger the situation in a worst-case scenario. Because of its cramped living conditions, excessive coal and fuel usage, and rapid deforestation, the southeast Asian region has historically had worse air quality than the rest of the world. The economic hubs of India and Bangladesh, in particular, have drawn so much attention away from rural regions that unrestrained urbanization is becoming controversial for planners, engineers, and stakeholders in sustainable development. This research combines the two main Asian capital regions, Delhi and Dhaka. It analyzes the change in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration, land surface temperature (LST), and vegetation dynamics across three years (2019-2021) for summer and winter. The NO2 concentration data from Sentinel-5P has been extracted using Google Earth Engine (GEE), and Landsat-8 imagery was utilized for LST, Normalizer Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI). The statistical analysis has been carried out by dividing the research regions into one sq. km grid (1512 grids for Delhi and 1485 grids for Dhaka). According to descriptive research, Dhaka's condition is worse than Delhi's, with significant vegetation loss with LST and NO2 concentrations rising. In both research regions, the NO2 concentration is high throughout the winter. The Pearson correlation value demonstrates a negative association between total NO2 concentration and mean NDVI and EVI values and a positive relationship between total NO2 concentration and mean LST. The data have been further assessed using linear regression, which overlaps the correlation result with a maximum R-squared value of 0.2998 for NO2 and EVI in winter 2019.

14.
International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research ; 13(1):L13-L20, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309397

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted daily lives and affected the entire healthcare system, including dental treatment. Efforts have been taken to formulate ways to counter the pandemic. Dental practices have adopted modifications of dental protocols with the incorporation of preventive measures. The aim of this survey was to study the patient outlook towards dental treatment and the awareness of patients about the preventive measures provided by their dentists in the post-Covid era. Hence a cross-sectional study was conducted on patients wanting to undergo dental treatments in the US, UK and India with a total of 121 participants per country during post covid pandemic. The study was conducted using a questionnaire prepared by the researcher, which consisted of 22 questions. The results showed that pain was the main reason for dental visits in all three countries. In the US and UK, a large percentage of people preferred video and teleconsulting even in the post-covid period, while in India, the majority preferred personal dental visits. The trend of avoiding dental treatment was widespread in India, displaying the level of ignorance and financial constraints among them. It indicates the need for better awareness about the importance of oral health and the inclusion of dental insurance schemes.

15.
Journal of Molecular Structure ; 1286:135633, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2308387

ABSTRACT

We present the synthesis and characterization of stereoselective thione. The synthetic procedure includes readily available starting materials and minimum side products. The reaction of meso‑stilbenediamine with carbon disulphide in the presence of strong base gave cis-4,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2-thione (DPIT) in an excellent yield. The thione compound was characterized via FT-IR and mass spectroscopy. In addition, the crystal structure of it was determined by single crystal X-rays diffraction analysis which inferred that the molecular configuration was stabilized by intramolecular π⋯π stacking interaction. The crystal packing was mainly stabilized by N-H⋯S bonding. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed for the exploration of the intermolecular interactions. Void analysis was carried out to predict the mechanical stability. Interaction energy between the molecular pairs is calculated which showed that the dispersion energy played a dominant role in the stabilization of the crystal packing. Moreover, the quantum computational methods were used to study the molecular structure and electronic properties of entitled compound. The molecular geometries were optimized for possible thione and thiole tautomeric structures. A comparison of total energy of molecular tautomers indicates that thione tautomer possesses lower total energy which is about 20.18 Kcal/mol lower than thiole tautomer. The electronic properties of thione derivative were studied including 3-D wavefunction delocalization of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) orbitals and their orbital energy gap. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap for DPIT was found to be 4.874 eV. The delocalization of wavefunction indicates the probable presence of HOMO and HOMO-1 are mainly localized over C-S bond owing to the presence of lone pair of electrons in the sulfur atom. Additionally, the molecular docking study was also carried out for main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. The binding energy calculation and investigation of intermolecular interactions highlighted the probable inhibition tendency of DPIT for SARS-CoV-2. The present experimental and computational studies indicate a significant potential of entitled molecule for electronic and biological perspectives.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(7)2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291053

ABSTRACT

The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have recently created previously unimaginable opportunities for boosting clinical and patient services, reducing costs and improving community health. Yet, a fundamental challenge that the modern healthcare management system faces is storing and securely transferring data. Therefore, this research proposes a novel Lionized remora optimization-based serpent (LRO-S) encryption method to encrypt sensitive data and reduce privacy breaches and cyber-attacks from unauthorized users and hackers. The LRO-S method is the combination of hybrid metaheuristic optimization and improved security algorithm. The fitness functions of lion and remora are combined to create a new algorithm for security key generation, which is provided to the serpent encryption algorithm. The LRO-S technique encrypts sensitive patient data before storing it in the cloud. The primary goal of this study is to improve the safety and adaptability of medical professionals' access to cloud-based patient-sensitive data more securely. The experiment's findings suggest that the secret keys generated are sufficiently random and one of a kind to provide adequate protection for the data stored in modern healthcare management systems. The proposed method minimizes the time needed to encrypt and decrypt data and improves privacy standards. This study found that the suggested technique outperformed previous techniques in terms of reducing execution time and is cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Computer Security , Humans , Algorithms , Privacy , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Sci Afr ; 20: e01671, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291015

ABSTRACT

This study takes a new look at the stock price-exchange rate nexus and attempts contributions to the extant studies in a number of intuitive ways. First, we analyze the reverse relationships given the theory-backed two-way causality between the two variables. We reassess the nexus across the First, Second and Third Waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as comparison between advanced and emerging economies. Third, we adopt a panel modeling approach that simultaneously takes nonstationarity, cross sectional dependence, and asymmetry into account. The data analyses show that the relationship is statistically negative for the two nexuses. The magnitudes were higher during the crisis (the COVID-19 pandemic) although the relationship broke down during the Second Wave as the Delta variant surged. We identify relevant investment and policy implications of the findings.

18.
Artif Organs ; 2023 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) is a lifesaving support modality for severe respiratory failure, but its resource-intensive nature led to significant controversy surrounding its use during the COVID-19 pandemic. We report the performance of several ECMO mortality prediction and severity of illness scores at discriminating survival in a large COVID-19 V-V ECMO cohort. METHODS: We validated ECMOnet, PRESET (PREdiction of Survival on ECMO Therapy-Score), Roch, SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment), APACHE II (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation), 4C (Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium), and CURB-65 (Confusion, Urea nitrogen, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure, age >65 years) scores on the ISARIC (International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium) database. We report discrimination via Area Under the Receiver Operative Curve (AUROC) and Area under the Precision Recall Curve (AURPC) and calibration via Brier score. RESULTS: We included 1147 patients and scores were calculated on patients with sufficient variables. ECMO mortality scores had AUROC (0.58-0.62), AUPRC (0.62-0.74), and Brier score (0.286-0.303). Roch score had the highest accuracy (AUROC 0.62), precision (AUPRC 0.74) yet worst calibration (Brier score of 0.3) despite being calculated on the fewest patients (144). Severity of illness scores had AUROC (0.52-0.57), AURPC (0.59-0.64), and Brier Score (0.265-0.471). APACHE II had the highest accuracy (AUROC 0.58), precision (AUPRC 0.64), and best calibration (Brier score 0.26). CONCLUSION: Within a large international multicenter COVID-19 cohort, the evaluated ECMO mortality prediction and severity of illness scores demonstrated inconsistent discrimination and calibration highlighting the need for better clinically applicable decision support tools.

19.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the sparse data on vitamin D status in pediatric COVID-19, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents. We also investigated whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI polymorphism could be a genetic marker for COVID-19 susceptibility. METHODS: One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed to have COVID-19 and 200 matched control children and adolescents were recruited. Patients were laboratory confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive by real-time RT-PCR. All participants were genotyped for VDR Fok1 polymorphism by RT-PCR. Vitamin D status was defined as sufficient for serum 25(OH) D at least 30 ng/mL, insufficient at 21-29 ng/mL, deficient at <20 ng/mL. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (52%) had low vitamin D levels with 74 (41%) being deficient and 20 (11%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk for COVID-19 (OR = 2.6; [95% CI 1.96-4.9]; P = 0.002. The FokI FF genotype was significantly more represented in patients compared to control group (OR = 4.05; [95% CI: 1.95-8.55]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency and VDR Fok I polymorphism may constitute independent risk factors for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents. IMPACT: Vitamin D deficiency could be a modifiable risk factor for COVID-19 in children and adolescents because of its immune-modulatory action. To our knowledge, ours is the first such study to investigate the VDR Fok I polymorphism in Caucasian children and adolescents with COVID-19. Vitamin D deficiency and the VDR Fok I polymorphism may constitute independent risk factors for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents. Clinical trials should be urgently conducted to test for causality and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 taking into account the VDR polymorphisms.

20.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 14(S1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2301010

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), commonly known as the silent killer, impacted the severity of COVID-19 patients during the pandemic era. Thrombosis or blood clots create the buildup of plaque on the coronary artery walls of the heart, which leads to coronary heart disease. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) is involved in the production of prostacyclin by systemic arteries;hence, inhibiting the COX-1 enzyme can prevent platelet reactivity mediated by prostacyclin. To obtain good health and well-being, the research of discovery of new drugs for anti-thrombotic still continue. Objective(s): This study aims to predict the potential of 17 compounds owned by the vanillin analog to COX-1 receptor using in silico. Method(s): This research employed a molecular docking analysis using Toshiba hardware and AutoDock Tools version 1.5.7, ChemDraw Professional 16.0, Discovery Studio, UCSF Chimera software, SWISSADME and pKCSM, a native ligand from COX-1 (PDB ID: 1CQE) was validated. Result(s): The validation result indicated that the RMSD was <2 A. The 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl benzoate compound had the lowest binding energy in COX-1 inhibition with a value of-7.70 A. All vanillin derivatives show good intestinal absorption, and the predicted toxicity indicated that they were non-hepatotoxic. All these compounds have the potential to be effective antithrombotic treatments when consumed orally. Conclusion(s): In comparison to other vanillin derivative com-pounds, 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl benzoate has the lowest binding energy value;hence, this analog can continue to be synthesized and its potential as an antithrombotic agent might be confirmed by in vivo studies.Copyright © the Author(s), 2023.

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