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BMC Med ; 21(1): 13, 2023 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196269


BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority groups in England have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and have lower vaccination rates than the White British population. We examined whether ethnic differences in COVID-19 mortality in England have continued since the vaccine rollout and to what extent differences in vaccination rates contributed to excess COVID-19 mortality after accounting for other risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of 28.8 million adults aged 30-100 years in England. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the 2011 Census. The outcome was death involving COVID-19 during the second (8 December 2020 to 12 June 2021) and third wave (13 June 2021 to 1 December 2021). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for death involving COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for age, residence type, geographical factors, sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic health, and vaccination status. RESULTS: Age-adjusted HRs of death involving COVID-19 were elevated for most ethnic minority groups during both waves, particularly for groups with lowest vaccination rates (Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Black African, and Black Caribbean). HRs were attenuated after adjusting for geographical factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and pre-pandemic health. Further adjusting for vaccination status substantially reduced residual HRs for Black African, Black Caribbean, and Pakistani groups in the third wave. Fully adjusted HRs only remained elevated for the Bangladeshi group (men: 2.19 [95% CI 1.72-2.78]; women: 2.12 [1.58-2.86]) and Pakistani men (1.24 [1.06-1.46]). CONCLUSIONS: Lower COVID-19 vaccination uptake in several ethnic minority groups may drive some of the differences in COVID-19 mortality compared to White British. Public health strategies to increase vaccination uptake in ethnic minority groups would help reduce inequalities in COVID-19 mortality, which have remained substantial since the start of the vaccination campaign.

COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Minority Groups , England/epidemiology
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.27.21250153


Objective To determine the prevalence of olfactory dysfunctions, mainly, anosmia and to identify its associated factors in patients with COVID-19 infection. Study design A hospital-based prospective observational cohort study Setting A COVID dedicated hospital, Square Hospitals Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods We collected patients information including laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 test results. We used Pearson Chi-square test and logistic regression model to assess the associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and olfactory outcomes. Results Out of 600 COVID-19 positive patients, 38.7% were diagnosed with olfactory dysfunction. Our analyses showed that patients age, smoking status, cough, dyspnea, sore throat, asthenia, and nausea or vomiting were significantly associated with the anosmia. We observed the risk of developing anosmia was greater in younger patients than in older patients, and this risk decreased as age increased [odds ratio (OR) range for different age groups: 1.26 to 1.08]. Smoking patients were 1.73 times more likely to experience anosmia than non-smoking patients [OR=1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-2.98]. In addition, patients complained asthenia had a significantly double risk of developing the anosmia [OR = 1.96, CI = 1.23-3.06]. Conclusions Our study shows that about 39% of patients diagnosed with olfactory dysfunction. Patients age, smoking status, and asthenia are significantly positively associated with the anosmia. Since anosmia can be a significant marker for the diagnosis of COVID-19, we suggest regular screening of olfactory dysfunction in patients with early symptoms of COVID-19, particularly younger patients, smoker, and complained asthenia.

Dyspnea , Olfaction Disorders , Seizures , Asthenia , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , COVID-19