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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
2.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 33(3): 101366, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major health problem worldwide. The surveillance of seropositive individuals serves as an indicator to the extent of infection spread and provides an estimation of herd immunity status among population. Reports from different countries investigated this issue among healthcare workers (HCWs) who are "at risk" and "sources of risk" for COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 among HCWs in one of the COVID-19 referral centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using three different serological methods. METHODS: In-house developed enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), commercially available electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and microneutralization (MN) assay were utilized to determine the seroprevalence rate among the study population. 204 HCWs participated in the study. Both physicians and nurses working in the COVID-19 and non COVID-19 areas were included. Twelve out of 204 were confirmed cases of COVID-19 with variable disease severity. Samples from recovered HCWs were collected four weeks post diagnosis. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence rate was 6.3% (13 out of 204) using the in-house ELISA and MN assay and it was 5.8% (12 out of 204) using the commercial ECLIA. Among HCWs undiagnosed with COVID-19, the seroprevalence was 2% (4 out 192). Notably, neutralizing antibodies were not detected in 3 (25%) out 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, similar to the recent national multi-center study, showed a low seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 antibodies among HCWs. Concordance of results between the commercial electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), in-house ELISA and MN assay was observed. The in-house ELISA is a promising tool for the serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, seroprevalence studies may underestimate the extent of COVID-19 infection as some cases with mild disease did not have detectable antibody responses.

3.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(3): 100656, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663316

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic had significant impact on health care worldwide which has led to a reduction in all elective admissions and management of patients through virtual care. The purpose of this study is to assess changes in STEMI volumes, door to reperfusion, and the time from the onset of symptoms until reperfusion therapy, and in-hospital events between the pre-COVID-19 (PC) and after COVID-19 (AC) period. All acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cases were retrospectively identified from 16 centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 period from January 01 to April 30, 2020. These cases were compared to a pre-COVID period from January 01 to April 30, 2018 and 2019. One thousand seven hundred and eighty-five patients with a mean age 56.3 (SD ± 12.4) years, 88.3% were male. During COVID-19 Pandemic the total STEMI volumes was reduced (28%, n = 500), STEMI volumes for those treated with reperfusion therapy was reduced too (27.6%, n= 450). Door to balloon time < 90 minutes was achieved in (73.1%, no = 307) during 2020. Timing from the onset of symptoms to the balloon of more than 12 hours was higher during 2020 comparing to pre-COVID 19 years (17.2% vs <3%, respectively). There were no differences between the AC and PC period with respect to in-hospital events and the length of hospital stay. There was a reduction in the STEMI volumes during 2020. Our data reflected the standard of care for STEMI patients continued during the COVID-19 pandemic while demonstrating patients delayed presenting to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care/organization & administration
4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 1995-2000, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging disease all over the world and spreading at an unpredicted rate, resulting in significant influences on global economies and public health. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics have been partially described in some observational studies. Not enough systematic reviews on predictors of critical illness and mortality in COVID 19 have been published to date. In this review, we had illustrated the prognostic predictors of COVID-19 by gathering published information on the risk factors related to the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections.

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