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2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(34): e258, 2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (IFV) infections would occur in 2021-2022 as domestic nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are easing. METHODS: Data were collected from the Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System database. The weekly positivity rates of respiratory viruses and number of hospitalizations for acute respiratory infections were evaluated (January 2016-2022). The period from February 2020 to January 2022 was considered the NPI period. The autoregressive integrated moving average model and Poisson analysis were used for data analysis. Data from 14 countries/regions that reported positivity rates of RSV and IFV were also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-NPI period, the positivity and hospitalization rates for IFV infection during 2021-2022 significantly decreased to 0.0% and 1.0%, respectively, at 0.0% and 1.2% of the predicted values, respectively. The RSV infection positivity rate in 2021-2022 was 1.8-fold higher than that in the pre-NPI period at 1.5-fold the predicted value. The hospitalization rate for RSV was 20.0% of that in the pre-NPI period at 17.6% of the predicted value. The re-emergence of RSV and IFV infections during 2020-2021 was observed in 13 and 4 countries, respectively. CONCLUSION: During 2021-2022, endemic transmission of the RSV, but not IFV, was observed in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): 91-96, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) remains a major burden of mortality and morbidity in children. As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged, stringent nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were applied worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of NPIs on pediatric IBI in Korea. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2020, surveillance for pediatric IBIs caused by 9 pathogens (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, S. agalactiae, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella species, L. monocytogenes and E. coli) was performed at 22 hospitals throughout Korea. Annual incidence rates were compared before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 651 cases were identified and the annual incidence was 194.0 cases per 100,000 in-patients in 2018, 170.0 in 2019 and 172.4 in 2020. Most common pathogen by age group was S. agalactiae in infants < 3 months (n = 129, 46.7%), S. aureus in 3 to < 24 months (n = 35, 37.2%), Salmonella spp. in 24 to < 60 months (n = 24, 34.8%) and S. aureus in children ≥ 5 years (n = 128, 60.7%). Compared with 2018 to 2019, the incidence rate in 2020 decreased by 57% for invasive pneumococcal disease (26.6 vs. 11.5 per 100,000 in-patients, P = 0.014) and 59% for Salmonella spp. infection (22.8 vs. 9.4 per 100,000 in-patients, P = 0.018). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in invasive infections due to S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: The NPIs implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced invasive diseases caused by S. pneumoniae and Salmonella spp. but not S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli in children.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/classification , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1085-1095, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718373

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pharmacovigilance , RNA, Messenger/genetics , World Health Organization
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147363, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669330

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infections are proposed to be triggering factors for Kawasaki disease (KD), although its etiological factors remain unknown. Recent reports have indicated a 4- to 6-week lag between SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with a similar presentation to that of KD. Objective: To investigate the temporal correlation between KD and viral infections, focusing on respiratory viruses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among individuals aged 0 to 19 years diagnosed with KD between January 2010 and September 2020 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Data on infectious disease outbreaks from 2016 to 2019 were collected from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System, Korea Enteroviruses Surveillance System, and the Enteric Pathogens Active Surveillance Network in South Korea. Data were analyzed from December 2020 to October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: National databases for infectious diseases were used for a time-series analysis of the correlation between viral infections and KD. The temporal correlation between infectious disease outbreaks and KD outbreaks was evaluated using the Granger causality test (G-test), which is a useful tool to estimate correlations between 2 time series of diseases based on time lags. Results: Overall, 53 424 individuals with KD were identified, including 22 510 (42.1%) females and 30 914 (57.9%) males and 44 276 individuals (82.9%) younger than 5 years. Intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant KD was identified in 9042 individuals (16.9%), and coronary artery abnormalities were identified in 384 individuals (0.7%). Of 14 infectious diseases included in the analyses, rhinovirus infection outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks in South Korea (r = 0.3; 1 month: P < .001; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus infection were identified as significantly correlated with KD outbreaks by 2 months (r = 0.5; 2 months: P < .001). Additionally, varicella outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 2 and 3 months before KD outbreaks (r = 0.7; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study with a time series analysis of children and youth in South Korea with KD, respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and varicella outbreaks were significantly correlated with KD at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 65(4): 167-171, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542331

ABSTRACT

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries worldwide have implemented several nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to contain its spread before vaccines and treatments were developed. NPIs included social distancing, mask wearing, intensive contact tracing and isolation, and sanitization. In addition to their effectiveness at preventing the rapid spread of COVID-19, NPIs have caused secondary changes in the epidemiology of other infectious diseases. In Korea, various NPI stages have been implemented since the first confirmed case of COVID-19 on January 20, 2020. This review, based on a PubMed database search, shows the impact of NPIs on several infectious diseases other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the COVID-19 pandemic era in Korea.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 29-35, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduce winter-prevalent respiratory viral infections represented by a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (IFV) during the winter in Korea. METHODS: The Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System database was used. From January 2016 through January 2021, the weekly positivity of respiratory viruses and the weekly number of hospitalizations with acute respiratory infections were collected. The NPI period was defined as February 2020-January 2021. We analyzed whether hospitalization and sample positivity by respiratory viruses changed after NPIs. Bayesian structural time-series models and Poisson analyses were used. Data from other countries/regions reporting positive rates of RSV and IFV were also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-NPI period, the positive rates of RSV and IFV decreased significantly to 19% and 6%, and 23% and 6% of the predicted value. Also, hospitalization significantly decreased to 9% and 8%, and 10% and 5% of the predicted value. The positive rates of IFV in 14 countries during the NPI period were almost 0, whereas sporadic outbreaks of RSV occurred in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: No RSV and IFV winter epidemics were observed during the 2020-2021 season in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bayes Theorem , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(7): e184-e191, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have implemented nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine whether NPIs led to the decline in the incidences of respiratory infections. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, ecological study using a nationwide notifiable diseases database and a respiratory virus sample surveillance collected from January 2016 through July 2020 in the Republic of Korea. Intervention period was defined as February-July 2020, when the government implemented NPIs nationwide. Observed incidences in the intervention period were compared with the predicted incidences by an autoregressive integrated moving average model and the 4-year mean cumulative incidences (CuIs) in the same months of the preintervention period. RESULTS: Five infectious diseases met the inclusion criteria: chickenpox, mumps, invasive pneumococcal disease, scarlet fever, and pertussis. The incidences of chickenpox and mumps during the intervention period were significantly lower than the prediction model. The CuIs (95% confidence interval) of chickenpox and mumps were 36.4% (23.9-76.3%) and 63.4% (48.0-93.3%) of the predicted values. Subgroup analysis showed that the decrease in the incidence was universal for chickenpox, while mumps showed a marginal reduction among those aged <18 years, but not in adults. The incidence of respiratory viruses was significantly lower than both the predicted incidence (19.5%; 95% confidence interval, 11.8-55.4%) and the 4-year mean CuIs in the preintervention period (24.5%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of NPIs was associated with a significant reduction in the incidences of several respiratory infections in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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