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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-22, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omicron variant was featured with high transmissibility and striking antibody evasion. Shanghai has been experiencing Omicron wave since March 2022. Though several studies have evaluated the risk factors of severe infections, the analyses of BA.2 infection risk and protective factors among geriatric people was much limited. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study described clinical characteristics of geriatric Omicron infections (aged more than 60), and assessed risk and protective factors for severe infections. RESULTS: A total of 1377 patients older than 60 were enrolled, with 75.96% had comorbidities. The median viral shedding time and hospitalization time was 9 and 8 days, respectively. Severe/critical were associated with longer virus clearance time (aOR [95%CI]:0.706(0.533-0.935), P=0.015)), while fully vaccinated/booster and paxlovid use shortened viral shedding time (1.229 [1.076-1.402], P=0.002; 1.140 [.019-1.274], P=0.022, respectively). Older age (>80), cerebrovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease were risk factors of progressing to severe/critical. Fully vaccination was a significant protective factor of severe infections (0.237[0.071-0.793], P=0.019). Further, we found patients with more than two comorbidities were more likely to get serious outcome in all age groups. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that in the elderly older than 60 years old, older age (aged over 80), cerebrovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease were risk factors of severe infection. Patients with more than two comorbidities were more likely to get serious outcome. Fully vaccinated/booster patients were less likely to be severe and vaccinations could shorten viral shedding time. The limitation of lacking overall spectrum of COVID-19 infections among elders could be compensated in other larger scale studies in the future.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 632, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 sounded the alarm for early inspection on acute respiratory infection (ARI). However, diagnosis pathway of ARI has still not reached a consensus and its impact on prognosis needs to be further explored. METHODS: ESAR is a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial on evaluating the diagnosis performance and its impact on prognosis of ARI between mNGS and multiplex PCR. Enrolled patients will be divided into two groups with a ratio of 1:1. Group I will be directly tested by mNGS. Group II will firstly receive multiplex PCR, then mNGS in patients with severe infection if multiplex PCR is negative or inconsistent with clinical manifestations. All patients will be followed up every 7 days for 28 days. The primary endpoint is time to initiate targeted treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of significant events (oxygen inhalation, mechanical ventilation, etc.), clinical remission rate, and hospitalization length. A total of 440 participants will be enrolled in both groups. DISCUSSION: ESAR compares the efficacy of different diagnostic strategies and their impact on treatment outcomes in ARI, which is of great significance to make precise diagnosis, balance clinical resources and demands, and ultimately optimize clinical diagnosis pathways and treatment strategies. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT04955756, Registered on July 9th 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofab356, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927345

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa442.].

4.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925951

ABSTRACT

Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are limited. In this multicenter prospective study, HCC patients received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. The safety and neutralizing antibody were monitored. Totally, 74 patients were enrolled from 10 centers in China, and 37 (50.0%), 25 (33.8%), and 12 (16.2%) received the CoronaVac, BBIBP-CorV, and WIBP-CorV, respectively. The vaccines were well tolerated, where pain at the injection site (6.8% [5/74]) and anorexia (2.7% [2/74]) were the most frequent local and systemic adverse events. The median level of neutralizing antibody was 13.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 6.9-23.2) AU/ml at 45 (IQR: 19-72) days after the second dose of vaccinations, and 60.8% (45/74) of patients had positive neutralizing antibody. Additionally, lower γ-glutamyl transpeptidase level was related to positive neutralizing antibody (odds ratio = 1.022 [1.003-1.049], p = 0.049). In conclusion, this study found that inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe and the immunogenicity is acceptable or hyporesponsive in patients with HCC. Given that the potential benefits may outweigh the risks and the continuing emergences of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants, we suggest HCC patients to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Future validation studies are warranted.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1711-1716, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895728

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 500 million infections and 6.2 million deaths globally, resulting in numerous sporting events being cancelled or postponed. Therefore, effective control strategies are urgently needed to prevent COVID-19 transmission at these local and global events. This article introduced the strategies utilized at the Tokyo and Beijing Olympics and proposed several measures for future reference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Seasons , Tokyo/epidemiology
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(8): 1077-1083.e4, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has evolved into four sub-lineages-BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3-with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide. We and others have reported antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparisons of Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are necessary. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we report that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of an inactivated whole-virion vaccine shows weak to no neutralization activity, while homologous or heterologous boosters markedly improve neutralization titers against all Omicron sub-lineages. We also present neutralization profiles against a 20 mAb panel, including 10 authorized or approved, against the Omicron sub-lineages, along with mAb mapping against single or combinatorial spike mutations. Most mAbs lost neutralizing activity, while some demonstrate distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting antigenic differences. Collectively, our results suggest the Omicron sub-lineages threaten the neutralization efficacy of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated
7.
Hepatol Int ; 16(3): 691-701, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with compensated (C-cirrhosis) and decompensated cirrhosis (D-cirrhosis) are limited. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, adult participants with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis were enrolled and received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events were recorded within 14 days after any dose of vaccination, and serum samples of enrolled patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. Risk factors for negative neutralizing antibody were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 553 patients were enrolled from 15 centers in China, including 388 and 165 patients with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis. The vaccines were well tolerated, most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (23/388 [5.9%] vs 9/165 [5.5%]) and fatigue (5/388 [1.3%] vs 3/165 [1.8%]) were the most frequently local and systemic adverse events in both the C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Overall, 4.4% (16/363) and 0.3% (1/363) of patients were reported Grades 2 and 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (defined as ALT > 2 upper limit of normal [ULN] but ≤ 5 ULN, and ALT > 5 ULN, respectively). The positive rates of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies were 71.6% (278/388) and 66.1% (109/165) in C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Notably, Child-Pugh score of B and C levels was an independent risk factor of negative neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe with acceptable immunogenicity in cirrhotic patients, and Child-Pugh score of B and C levels is associated with hyporesponsive to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liver Cirrhosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332033

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been partitioned into four sub-lineages designated BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide recently by outcompeting BA.1 and BA.1.1. We and others have reported the striking antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparison of susceptibility of all the major Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are urgently needed. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) showed very weak to no neutralization activity, while a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) markedly improved the neutralization titers against all Omicron variants. The comparison between sub-lineages indicated that BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 had comparable or even greater antibody resistance than BA.1. We further evaluated the neutralization profile of a panel of 20 mAbs, including 10 already authorized or approved, against these Omicron sub-lineages as well as viruses with different Omicron spike single or combined mutations. Most mAbs lost their neutralizing activity completely or substantially, while some demonstrated distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting their antigenic difference. Taken together, our results suggest all four Omicron sub-lineages threaten the efficacies of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(8): 1893-1894, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729616
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315363

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now officially a pandemic. Current studies observed extensive abnormal indexes in COVID-19 patients and significant differences between mild and severe patients. However, which index would perform better as the indicator of disease progression merits further investigation. Methods: We enrolled COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical center. We closely monitored the following candidate indictors: white blood cell, lymphocyte, platelet, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, alanine aminotransferase, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fibrin degradation products (FDP), D-dimer, creatine kinase, myoglobin, troponin T (TnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin. The correlation with illness severity were assessed by Spearman analysis and the ability of differentiating the clinical statuses was quantified as the AUC value of the ROC curve. Results: A total of 326 patients were enrolled, including 299 mild-ordinary and 27 severe-critical patients. At admission, D-dimer and CRP were elevated above normal range both in mild-ordinary and severe-critical patients. LDH, NT-proBNP, myoglobin, CD4 T cell, eGFR, FDP and PCT were beyond normal range in the mild-ordinary stages of severe-critical patients, but remained normal in the persistently mild-ordinary patients. Top 5 parameters with highest spearmen coefficient were LDH, procalcitonin, NT-proBNP, myoglobin and D-dimer (Spearman coefficient: 0.488, 0.453, 0.414, 0.412, 0.407). Comparing between mild-ordinary stage and severe/critical stage, LDH showed the highest receiver operating characteristics (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.951. PCT ranked second, with the ROC AUC of 0.905. Comparing between mild-ordinary and severe stages, only LDH had the ROC AUC of over 0.90 (0.927). Conclusions: This study found LDH to be a superior indicator for COVID-19 status and had the potential to optimize the clinical management strategy.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 452-464, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672032

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infection of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious challenge, as increased infections were documented in fully-vaccinated individuals. Recipients with poor antibody response are highly vulnerable to reinfection, whereas those with strong antibody responses achieve sterilizing immunity. Thus far, biomarkers associated with levels of vaccine-elicited antibody response are still lacking. Here, we studied the antibody response of age- and gender-controlled healthy cohort, who received inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and profiled the B cell receptor repertoires in longitudinally consecutive samples. Upon vaccination, all vaccinated individuals displayed a convergent antibody response with shared common antibody clones and public neutralizing antibodies. Strikingly, poor vaccine-responders are distinguishable from strong vaccine-responders by a biased V-usage before vaccination and IgG to IgM mRNA ratio. These findings reveal molecular signatures associated with the different levels of vaccine-induced antibody response, which could be further developed into biomarkers for the design of vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(7): 1516-1524.e2, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated whole-virion severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) in this study. METHODS: This was a prospective, multi-center, open-label study. Participants aged over 18 years with confirmed CLD and healthy volunteers were enrolled. All participants received 2 doses of inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Adverse reactions were recorded within 14 days after any dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, laboratory testing results were collected after the second dose, and serum samples of enrolled subjects were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. RESULTS: A total of 581 participants (437 patients with CLD and 144 healthy volunteers) were enrolled from 15 sites in China. Most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (n = 36; 8.2%) was the most frequently reported adverse event. Three participants had grade 3 aminopherase elevation (defined as alanine aminopherase >5 upper limits of normal) after the second dose of inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and only 1 of them was judged as severe adverse event potentially related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were 76.8% in the noncirrhotic CLD group, 78.9% in the compensated cirrhotic group, 76.7% in the decompensated cirrhotic group (P = .894 among CLD subgroups), and 90.3% in healthy controls (P = .008 vs CLD group). CONCLUSION: Inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe in patients with CLD. Patients with CLD had lower immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines than healthy population. The immunogenicity is similarly low in noncirrhotic CLD, compensated cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liver Diseases , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Diseases/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 639-647, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624421

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 booster vaccination is being comprehensively evaluated globally due to the emerging concern of reduced protection rate of previous vaccination and circulating Variants of Concern (VOC). But the safety and immunogenicity of homologous BBIBP-CorV boosting vaccination are yet to be thoroughly evaluated. We conducted this prospective, open-label study in Huashan Hospital using a third 6.5U BBIBP-CorV administered at an interval of 4-8 months following the previous two doses in healthy adults. Safety, anti-RBD response and neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs were examined. Sixty-three and forty participants entered the booster and the control group, respectively. A significant increase in IFN-γ SFU per million PBMCs was observed on day 14 against N peptide (20 vs. 5, P < 0.001). On day 14, pVNT GMTs increased over 15 folds of the baseline levels against prototype to reach 404.54 titers and over 9-13 folds against 4 VOCs and continuously increased by day 28. sVNT GMTs increased 112.51 and 127.45 folds by days 14 and 28 compared to the baseline level. Median anti-RBD antibody and IgG level significantly increased from 11.12 to 2607.50 BAU/ml and 4.07 to 619.20 BAU/ml on day 14. On day 14, females showed a significantly higher cell-mediated immune response against S1 peptide. The 7-8 months interval group had a higher humoral response than the 4-6 months interval group. No severe adverse event was reported. A third homologous BBIBP-CorV boosting vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for healthy adults and broadened participants' immunity against VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 337-343, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe emerging new VOC B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant has raised serious concerns due to multiple mutations, reported significant immune escape, and unprecedented rapid spreading speed. Currently, studies describing the neutralization ability of different homologous and heterologous booster vaccination against Omicron are still lacking. In this study, we explored the immunogenicity of COVID-19 breakthrough patients, BBIBP-CorV homologous booster group and BBIBP-CorV/ZF2001 heterologous booster group against SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes corresponding to the prototype, Beta, Delta, and the emergent Omicron variant.Notably, at 14 days post two-dose inactivated vaccines, pVNT titre increased to 67.4 GMTs against prototype, 8.85 against Beta and 35.07 against Delta, while neutralization activity against Omicron was below the lower limit of quantitation in 80% of the samples. At day 14 post BBIBP-CorV homologous booster vaccination, GMTs of pVNT significantly increased to 285.6, 215.7, 250.8, 48.73 against prototype, Beta, Delta, and Omicron, while at day 14 post ZF2001 heterologous booster vaccination, GMTs of pVNT significantly increased to 1436.00, 789.6, 1501.00, 95.86, respectively. Post booster vaccination, 100% samples showed positive neutralization activity against Omicron, albeit illustrated a significant reduction (5.86- to 14.98-fold) of pVNT against Omicron compared to prototype at 14 days after the homologous or heterologous vaccine boosters.Overall, our study demonstrates that vaccine-induced immune protection might more likely be escaped by Omicron compared to prototypes and other VOCs. After two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines as the "priming" shot, a third heterologous protein subunit vaccine and a homologous inactivated vaccine booster could improve neutralization against Omicron.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
18.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): 376-385, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent identification of a novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has caused a global outbreak of respiratory illnesses. The rapidly developing pandemic has posed great challenges to diagnosis of this novel infection. However, little is known about the metatranscriptomic characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We analyzed metatranscriptomics in 187 patients (62 cases with COVID-19 and 125 with non-COVID-19 pneumonia). Transcriptional aspects of 3 core elements, pathogens, the microbiome, and host responses, were evaluated. Based on the host transcriptional signature, we built a host gene classifier and examined its potential for diagnosing COVID-19 and indicating disease severity. RESULTS: The airway microbiome in COVID-19 patients had reduced alpha diversity, with 18 taxa of differential abundance. Potentially pathogenic microbes were also detected in 47% of the COVID-19 cases, 58% of which were respiratory viruses. Host gene analysis revealed a transcriptional signature of 36 differentially expressed genes significantly associated with immune pathways, such as cytokine signaling. The host gene classifier built on such a signature exhibited the potential for diagnosing COVID-19 (area under the curve of 0.75-0.89) and indicating disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with those with non-COVID-19 pneumonias, COVID-19 patients appeared to have a more disrupted airway microbiome with frequent potential concurrent infections and a special trigger host immune response in certain pathways, such as interferon-gamma signaling. The immune-associated host transcriptional signatures of COVID-19 hold promise as a tool for improving COVID-19 diagnosis and indicating disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(1): 13-16, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847850

ABSTRACT

A previously unknown beta coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered from a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan since the end of 2019. Ever since the start of COVID-19, government administrations, academic institutions, and technology enterprises are under unprecedented cooperation in controlling this outbreak from pathogen identification, epidemic situation assessment, to outbreak containment. Timely identification, isolation, and whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 have laid the foundation for effective control of this novel infection. With the increasing case numbers worldwide, more real-time information is emerging, changing our understandings to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, and nonetheless refining the outbreak control responses. The efficient management of COVID-19 requires global collaboration and an efficient share of information.

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