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Minerva Med ; 113(3): 558-568, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955308


Since COVID-19 spread all over the world becoming a pandemic illness, researchers have better characterized route of virus transmissibility and clinical signs and symptoms of the disease. Since viral transmission occurs through the droplets emitted during coughing or sneezing, the lungs are primarily affected. However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target, and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin. This review focuses on extra pulmonary involvement underlying atypical presentation of COVID-19. There is a great body of evidence concerning several human organ abnormalities associated to the SARS-CoV-2, enough to consider COVID-19 as a multisystemic and polyhedral disease.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020062, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761263


The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco smoking and other lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity and progression, we designed a longitudinal observational study titled COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT). About 30 Italian hospitals in North, Centre and South of Italy joined the study. Its main aims are: 1) to quantify the role of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on the severity and progression of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; 2) to compare smoking prevalence and severity of the disease in relation to smoking in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus patients treated at home; 3) to quantify the association between other lifestyle factors, such as e-cigarette and HTP use, alcohol and obesity and the risk of unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical history information will be gathered for around 3000 hospitalized and 700-1000 home-isolated, laboratory-confirmed, COVID-19 patients. Given the current absence of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2 and the lack of a specific treatment for -COVID-19, prevention strategies are of extreme importance. This project, designed to highly contribute to the international scientific debate on the role of avoidable lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity, will provide valuable epidemiological data in order to support important recommendations to prevent COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Life Style , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology