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Water Environ Res ; 94(8): e10768, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971340


COVID-19 wastewater-based epidemiology has been performed in catchments of various sizes and sewer types with many short-term studies available and multi-seasonal studies emerging. The objective of this study was to compare weekly observations of SARS-CoV-2 genes in municipal wastewater across multiple seasons for different systems as a factor of sewer type (combined, separate sanitary) and system size. Sampling occurred following the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 cases in the study region (June 2020) and continued through the third wave (May 2021), the period during which clinical testing was widely available and different variants dominated clinical cases. The strongest correlations were observed between wastewater N1 concentrations and the cumulative clinical cases reported in the 2 weeks prior to wastewater sampling, followed by the week prior, new cases, and the week after wastewater sampling. Sewer type and size did not necessarily explain the strength of the correlations, indicating that other non-sewer factors may be impacting the observations. In-system sampling results for the largest system sampled are presented for 1 month. Removing wet weather days from the data sets improved even the flow-normalized correlations for the systems, potentially indicating that interpreting results during wet weather events may be more complicated than simply accounting for dilution. PRACTITIONER POINTS: SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater correlated best with total clinical cases reported in 2 weeks before wastewater sampling at the utility level. Study performed when clinical testing was widespread during the year after the first COVID-19 wave in the region. Sewer type and size did not necessarily explain correlation strength between clinical cases and wastewater-based epidemiology results. Removing wet weather days improved correlations for 3/4 utilities studied, including both separate sanitary and combined sewers.

COVID-19 , Wastewater , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage , Weather
Comput Toxicol ; 18: 100156, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060886


The recent pandemic Coronavirus disease-19 outbreak had traumatized global countries since its origin in late December 2019. Though the virus originated in China, it has spread rapidly across the world due its firmly established community transmission. To successfully tackle the spread and further infection, there needs a clear multidimensional understanding of the molecular mechanisms. Henceforth, 942 viral genome sequences were analysed to predict the core genomes crucial in virus life cycle. Additionally, 35 small interfering RNA transcripts were predicted that can target specifically the viral core proteins and reduce pathogenesis. The crystal structure of Covid-19 main protease-6LU7 was chosen as an attractive target due to the factors that there were fewer mutations and whose structure had significant identity to the annotated protein sequence of the core genome. Drug repurposing of both recruiting and non recruiting drugs was carried out through molecular docking procedures to recognize bitolterol as a good inhibitor of Covid-19 protease. The study was extended further to screen antiviral phytocompounds through quantitative structure activity relationship and molecular docking to identify davidigenin, from licorice as the best novel lead with good interactions and binding energy. The docking of the best compounds in all three categories was validated with molecular dynamics simulations which implied stable binding of the drug and lead molecule. Though the studies need clinical evaluations, the results are suggestive of curbing the pandemic.