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1.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 1-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800370

ABSTRACT

Rates of survival with functional recovery for both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are notably low. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is emerging as a modality to improve prognosis by augmenting perfusion to vital end-organs by utilizing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during conventional CPR and stabilizing the patient for interventions aimed at reversing the aetiology of the arrest. Implementing this emergent procedure requires a substantial investment in resources, and even the most successful ECPR programs may nonetheless burden healthcare systems, clinicians, patients, and their families with unsalvageable patients supported by extracorporeal devices. Non-randomized and observational studies have repeatedly shown an association between ECPR and improved survival, versus conventional CPR, for in-hospital cardiac arrest in select patient populations. Recently, randomized controlled trials suggest benefit for ECPR over standard resuscitation, as well as the feasibility of performing such trials, in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest within highly coordinated healthcare delivery systems. Application of these data to clinical practice should be done cautiously, with outcomes likely to vary by the setting and system within which ECPR is initiated. ECPR introduces important ethical challenges, including whether it should be considered an extension of CPR, at what point it becomes sustained organ replacement therapy, and how to approach patients unable to recover or be bridged to heart replacement therapy. The economic impact of ECPR varies by health system, and has the potential to outstrip resources if used indiscriminately. Ideally, studies should include economic evaluations to inform health care systems about the cost-benefits of this therapy.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy
2.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 111-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491087
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 632933, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156133

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Different phenotypes have been identified in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Existence of several phenotypes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) related acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown. We sought to identify different phenotypes of patients with moderate to severe ARDS related to COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an observational study of 416 COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe ARDS at 21 intensive care units in Belgium and France. The primary outcome was day-28 ventilatory free days. Secondary outcomes were mortality on day 28, acute kidney injury, acute cardiac injury, pulmonary embolism, and deep venous thrombosis. Multiple factor analysis and hierarchical classification on principal components were performed to distinguish different clinical phenotypes. Results: We identified three different phenotypes in 150, 176, and 90 patients, respectively. Phenotype 3 was characterized by short evolution, severe hypoxemia, and old comorbid patients. Phenotype 1 was mainly characterized by the absence of comorbidities, relatively high compliance, and long duration of symptoms, whereas phenotype 2 was characterized female sex, and the presence of mild comorbidities such as uncomplicated diabetes or chronic hypertension. The compliance in phenotype 2 was lower than that in phenotype 1, with higher plateau and driving pressure. Phenotype 3 was associated with higher mortality compared to phenotypes 1 and 2. Conclusions: In COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe ARDS, we identified three clinical phenotypes. One of these included older people with comorbidities who had a fulminant course of disease with poor prognosis. Requirement of different treatments and ventilatory strategies for each phenotype needs further investigation.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 52, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Controversies exist on the nature of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in particular on the static compliance of the respiratory system (Crs). We aimed to analyze the association of Crs with outcome in COVID-19-associated ARDS, to ascertain its determinants and to describe its evolution at day-14. METHODS: In this observational multicenter cohort of patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 ARDS, Crs was measured at day-1 and day-14. Association between Crs or Crs/ideal body weight (IBW) and breathing without assistance at day-28 was analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. Determinants were ascertained by multivariable linear regression. Day-14 Crs was compared to day-1 Crs with paired t-test in patients still under controlled mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The mean Crs in 372 patients was 37.6 ± 13 mL/cmH2O, similar to as in ARDS of other causes. Multivariate linear regression identified chronic hypertension, low PaO2/FiO2 ratio, low PEEP, and low tidal volume as associated with lower Crs/IBW. After adjustment on confounders, nor Crs [OR 1.0 (CI 95% 0.98-1.02)] neither Crs/IBW [OR 0.63 (CI 95% 0.13-3.1)] were associated with the chance of breathing without assistance at day-28 whereas plateau pressure was [OR 0.93 (CI 95% 0.88-0.99)]. In a subset of 108 patients, day-14 Crs decreased compared to day-1 Crs (31.2 ± 14.4 mL/cmH2O vs 37.8 ± 11.4 mL/cmH2O, p < 0.001). The decrease in Crs was not associated with day-28 outcome. CONCLUSION: In a large multicenter cohort of moderate to severe COVID-19 ARDS, mean Crs was decreased below 40 mL/cmH2O and was not associated with day-28 outcome. Crs decreased between day-1 and day-14 but the decrease was not associated with day-28 outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(7): e0166, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977408

ABSTRACT

Risk factors associated with pulmonary embolism in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients deserve to be better known. We therefore performed a post hoc analysis from the COronaVirus-Associated DIsease Study (COVADIS) project, a multicenter observational study gathering 21 ICUs from France (n = 12) and Belgium (n = 9). Three-hundred seventy-five consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and positive coronavirus disease 2019 were included in the study. At day 28, 15% were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Known risk factors for pulmonary embolism including cancer, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease were not associated with pulmonary embolism. In the multivariate analysis, younger age (< 65 yr) (odds ratio, 2.14; 1.17-4.03), time between onset of symptoms and antiviral administration greater than or equal to 7 days (odds ratio, 2.39; 1.27-4.73), and use of neuromuscular blockers greater than or equal to 7 days (odds ratio, 1.89; 1.05-3.43) were independently associated with pulmonary embolism. These new findings reinforce the need for prospective studies that will determine the predictors of pulmonary embolism among patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 586307, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954333

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. Objectives: To explore clinical and biological parameters of COVID-19 patients with hospitalization criteria that could predict referral to intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Analyzing the clinical and biological profiles of COVID-19 patients at admission. Results: Among 99 consecutive patients that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization, 48 were hospitalized in the medicine department, 21 were first admitted to the medicine ward department and referred later to ICU, and 30 were directly admitted to ICU from the emergency department. At admission, patients requiring ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2, a D-dimer level above 1,000 ng/mL, and a higher high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (Hs-cTnI) level. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified Hs-cTnI above 9.75 pg/mL as the best predictive criteria for ICU referral [area under the curve (AUC), 86.4; 95% CI, 76.6-96.2]. This cutoff for Hs-cTnI was confirmed in univariate [odds ratio (OR), 22.8; 95% CI, 6.0-116.2] and multivariate analysis after adjustment for D-dimer level (adjusted OR, 20.85; 95% CI, 4.76-128.4). Transthoracic echocardiography parameters subsequently measured in 72 patients showed an increased right ventricular (RV) afterload correlated with Hs-cTnI (r = 0.42, p = 0.010) and D-dimer (r = 0.18, p = 0.047). Conclusion: Hs-cTnI appears to be the best relevant predictive factor for referring COVID-19 patients to ICU. This result associated with the correlation of D-dimer with RV dilatation probably reflects a myocardial injury due to an increased RV wall tension. This reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular thrombosis inducing a higher RV afterload.

7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 131, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding antiviral therapy efficacy in most severe patients under mechanical ventilation for Covid-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Comparison of antiviral strategies (none, hydroxychloroquine (OHQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), others (combination or remdesivir) in an observational multicentre cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe Covid-19 ARDS. The primary endpoint was the number of day 28 ventilator-free days (VFD). Patients who died before d28 were considered as having 0 VFD. The variable was dichotomized into "patients still ventilated or dead at day 28" versus "patients weaned and alive at day 28". RESULTS: We analyzed 415 patients (85 treated with standard of care (SOC), 57 with L/R, 220 with OHQ, and 53 others). The median number of d28-VFD was 0 (IQR 0-13) and differed between groups (P = 0.03), SOC patients having the highest d28-VFD. After adjustment for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, PaO2/FiO2 ratio and plateau pressure and accounting for center effect with a generalized linear mixed model, none of the antiviral strategies increased the chance of being alive and weaned from MV at day 28 compared to the SOC strategy (OR 0.48 CI95% (0.18-1.25); OR 0.96 (0.47-2.02) and OR 1.43 (0.53-4.04) for L/R, OHQ and other treatments, respectively). Acute kidney injury during ICU stay was frequent (55%); its incidence was higher in patients receiving lopinavir (66 vs 53%, P = 0.03). After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, chronic hypertension and chronic renal disease, the use of L/R was associated with an increased risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT). (OR 2.52 CI95% 1.16-5.59). CONCLUSION: In this multicentre observational study of moderate-to-severe Covid-19 ARDS patients, we did not observe any benefit among patients treated with OHQ or L/R compared with SOC. The use of L/R treatment was associated with an increased need for RRT. Take home message Neither hydroxychloroquine nor lopinavir/ritonavir as COVID-19 antiviral treatment is associated with higher ventilator-free days at day 28 when compared with standard of care (no antiviral treatment) in ICU patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. Lopinavir/ritonavir is associated with an increased risk of renal replacement therapy requirement. Tweet COVID-19: Insights from ARDS cohort: no signal of efficacy of any antiviral drugs. Lopinavir/ritonavir may be associated with need for RRT.

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