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Pathogens ; 10(12)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580541


BACKGROUND: Sialoadhesin (CD169) has been found to be overexpressed in the blood of COVID-19 patients and identified as a biomarker in early disease. We analyzed CD169 in the blood cells of COVID-19 patients to assess its role as a predictive marker of disease progression and clinical outcomes. METHODS: The ratio of the median fluorescence intensity of CD169 between monocytes and lymphocytes (CD169 RMFI) was analyzed by flow cytometry in blood samples of COVID-19 patients (COV) and healthy donors (HDs) and correlated with immunophenotyping, inflammatory markers, cytokine mRNA expression, pulmonary involvement, and disease progression. RESULTS: CD169 RMFI was high in COV but not in HDs, and it correlated with CD8 T-cell senescence and exhaustion markers, as well as with B-cell maturation and differentiation in COV. CD169 RMFI correlated with blood cytokine mRNA levels, inflammatory markers, and pneumonia severity in patients who were untreated at sampling, and was associated with the respiratory outcome throughout hospitalization. Finally, we also report the first evidence of the specific ability of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to trigger CD169 RMFI in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with IL-6 and IL-10 gene transcription in HD PBMCs stimulated in vitro. CONCLUSION: CD169 is induced by the spike protein and should be considered as an early biomarker for evaluating immune dysfunction and respiratory outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(18): e2100323, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316190


Blood cell analysis is a major pillar of biomedical research and healthcare. These analyses are performed in central laboratories. Rapid shipment from collection site to the central laboratories is currently needed because cells and biomarkers degrade rapidly. The dried blood spot from a fingerstick allows the preservation of cellular molecules for months but entire cells are never recovered. Here leucocyte elution is optimized from dried blood spots. Flow cytometry and mRNA expression profiling are used to analyze the recovered cells. 50-70% of the leucocytes that are dried on a polyester solid support via elution after shaking the support with buffer are recovered. While red blood cells lyse upon drying, it is found that the majority of leucocytes are preserved. Leucocytes have an altered structure that is improved by adding fixative in the elution buffer. Leucocytes are permeabilized, allowing an easy staining of all cellular compartments. Common immunophenotyping and mRNAs are preserved. The ability of a new biomarker (CD169) to discriminate between patients with and without Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome induced by Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is also preserved. Leucocytes from blood can be dried, shipped, and/or stored for at least 1 month, then recovered for a wide variety of analyses, potentially facilitating biomedical applications worldwide.

Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Hematology/methods , Immunophenotyping/methods , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell Separation/methods , Communicable Diseases/virology , Erythrocytes/virology , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Leukocytes/virology , RNA, Messenger/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics